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Living and working conditions



Area - 238,397 km2

Population – 19,401,658 (2019)

Official Language – Romanian 


EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizens may enter Romania after presenting a national identity document or a valid passport.

Family members who are not EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizens may enter Romania using a valid passport bearing an entry visa granted by a Romanian diplomatic mission or consular office, on request, on the basis of a fast-track procedure (48 hours) with the prior approval of the National Visa Centre of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Any family member who is not an EU citizen is exempted from the obligation to obtain the visa if he/she meets two conditions cumulatively: if he/she accompanies or joins a EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizen exercising his/her right of residence within the territory of Romania and if he/she holds a valid document proving his/her residence in another Member State as a family member of the EU/EEA citizen he/she accompanies or joins in Romania.

EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizens entering Romania have a right of residence for a period of 3 months following the date of entry, without any additional conditions. By way of exception, EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizens entering Romania and seeking a job have a right of residence for a period of up to 6 months following the date of entry, without any additional conditions. Family members of EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizens, who accompany or join these citizens later, have the same right of residence in Romania, irrespective of citizenship.

EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizens wishing to stay in Romania for more than 3 months must obtain a registration certificate from the local branches of the Inspectorate-General for Immigration. They are entitled to residence for more than three months if they are in one of the following situations: they have the status of a worker; they have medical insurance and the necessary means of support for themselves and for the members of their families at least at the level of the guaranteed minimum income applicable in Romania; they are enrolled with an institution in Romania which provides education or ongoing professional training and they have the means required in order to support themselves or the members of their family; they are members of the family of a European citizen meeting one of the conditions above or of a Romanian citizen having his/her domicile in Romania.

Family members who are not EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizens have a right of residence for more than 3 months if they accompany or join the EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizen meeting one of the aforementioned conditions.

EU/EEA citizens or their family members, who have uninterrupted legal residence in Romania for a period of at least 5 years may apply for permanent residence and for a permanent residence card. People who do not have EU citizenship but have resided uninterruptedly in Romania for a period of at least 5 years as family members of a EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizen who is a resident or a permanent resident enjoy the same right. A residence card can be issued by the Inspectorate-General for Immigration on the basis of an application filed within the first 3 months after the date of arrival in Romania.

Text last edited on: 07/2019


Jobseekers who are EU or EEA citizens can contact the National Employment Agency (ANOFM), which is Romania’s public employment office, through its local branches. They have free access to the Romanian labour market. Nationals of other Member States of the European Union are employed in the same conditions as Romanian nationals and have to complete all the employment formalities, from obtaining a medical certificate issued by an occupational physician and confirming that the future employee is fit for work to the notification, by the employer, of the individual employment contract to the Labour Inspection. It is recommended that sufficient time is allowed between the signing of the individual employment contract and the start of work at the Romanian employer, so as to enable the EU national to complete all the required formalities.

Interested persons may contact and register with one of the 41 employment agencies in the counties or in Bucharest, or with one of the 70 local employment agencies spread throughout the country.

County agencies provide information, counselling and mediation services for jobseekers or unemployed persons, as well as information and counselling services for potential employers. The services offered are free of charge.

A database is available, both at county and at the national level, containing all the jobs offered by Romanian employers. Employers are required by law to declare all their vacancies to the National Employment Agency. You can view job vacancies under the ‘Persoane fizice/Locuri de muncă’ (Individuals/Jobs) section on the ANOFM’s website. Details of the vacancies are displayed in Romanian.

EU/EEA citizens who are unemployed persons receiving unemployment benefits in another EU/EEA state and who are seeking a job in Romania may export their unemployment benefits (for a maximum period of 3 to 6 months), provided that they register as jobseekers with the county employment agency covering the area where they have established their residence in Romania.

You may also contact one of the 45 EURES advisers in the county employment agencies. The contact details of these EURES advisers can be found on the website of the National Employment Agency, under the EURES Romania section.

Providers of specialised services from Romania and from other EU/EEA States operate in the Romanian market in order to stimulate employment. ON ANOFM Website you can find the National Register of private providers of employment services accredited for the domestic market.

Another way of finding a job in Romania consists in accessing various web portals which are a major source of vacancy notices. Jobs published directly by employers can be found here and CVs may be uploaded in the database, so that they could be seen by employers looking for staff.

The national, regional and local newspapers also contain many classified job advertisements (both job offers and requests).

If the vacancies listed in the different publications or on the internet are not satisfactory for you or if you wish to work for a company that has not advertised the position you are interested in, you can still apply by sending an unsolicited application (CV accompanied, if you wish so, by a photograph and a cover letter) to the human resources department of the company concerned.

Text last edited on: 07/2019


In March 2019, the national nominal average gross wage was RON 5 050 (approx. EUR 1 050), and the nominal average net wage was RON 3 075 (approx. EUR 640).

There are differences in income between the western and eastern regions. Higher incomes are available in the more developed regions (Bucharest-Ilfov, North-West, West), with Bucharest offering the highest incomes in the country.

As of 1 January 2018 there are only three compulsory social contributions, as follows:

  • The social contribution (pension) — the rates of social contributions are:
  • 25% of the gross monthly income for normal working conditions, due by the employee, of which 3.75% is assigned to the private pension fund;
  • 4% of the gross monthly income for abnormal working conditions, due by the employer in addition to the 25% rate;
  • 8% of the gross monthly income for special employment conditions, due by the employer in addition to the 25% rate;
  • Social health contribution — 10% of the employee’s gross monthly income, due by the employee;
  •  Work insurance contributions — 2.25% of the gross monthly income, due by the employer, which includes the unemployment insurance contributions, the contribution for sick leave, the contribution for occupational risks and the contribution to salary claims.

The contribution to the state budget is paid via the income tax. The payroll tax for any gross salary higher than the guaranteed minimum wage is 10%. Social contributions and payroll tax are calculated, retained and paid by the employer.

Besides the income tax, pensions over a certain threshold are also taxed. Property tax is also payable on property, motor vehicles, land, the amount of which is determined by the municipalities, etc.

Every year, the Government establishes the minimum gross base salary guaranteed at country level (RON 2 080 as of 1 January 2019 and RON 2 350 for employees with higher education level and one year of seniority in the field of their education). The Government also established a minimum gross monthly base salary applicable in 2019 in the constructions sector, which amounts to RON 3 000 (approx. EUR 625). According to the National Institute of Statistics, in March 2019, the highest levels of average net salaries were recorded in the tobacco manufacturing sector (RON 7 336, approx. EUR 1 530), in the information technology sector (RON 7 491, approx. EUR 1 560), and the lowest levels in agriculture, forestry and fishing sectors (RON 2 301, approx. EUR 480) and in hotels and restaurants (RON 1 752, approx. EUR 370).

The standard VAT rate is 19%, as from 2017. There are also lower VAT rates (e.g. 9% for human and veterinary medicines, for water supply and sewage services, accommodations in hotel sector, food delivery and 5% for restaurant and catering services, books, textbooks, magazines and access to school and sports events, access to museums, memorial houses, fairs, exhibitions, mountain products, organic and traditional products authorised by the Ministry of Agriculture) as well as exemptions, according to the Fiscal Code.

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Cost of living varies from region to region and according to the environment where citizens live (urban or rural).

According to the INS (National Institute of Statistics) press release concerning the revenues and expenses of households in Q4 2018, the structure of total consumption expenditure broken down by use indicates that most expenses (32.1%) relate to the purchase of agri-food products and non-alcoholic drinks. Housing and water, electricity and natural gas accounted for 16.5% of household consumption. Other household expenses were for leisure and culture (7.9%), transportation (7.4%), healthcare (5%), communications (4.8%), clothing and footwear (8.7%), home furnishings and maintenance (5.7%), etc.

The approximate prices for certain basic products are as follows: EUR 2.2 for a 250 g packet of butter, EUR 1 for 1 litre of milk, EUR 1.4 for 1 kg of rice, EUR 0.8 for 1 kg of potatoes, EUR 0.4 for a 0.5 kg loaf of white bread, EUR 1.1 for 1 litre of cooking oil, EUR 0.7 for a 0.5 l bottle of beer, EUR 1.3 for a cup of espresso coffee, EUR 9 for a full lunch menu for one person in a restaurant, EUR 1.3 for 1 litre of 95 RON petrol.

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The national pre-university system is structured on 4 levels:

  1. pre-school, which includes a first year, a second year and a third year, in preparation for school;
  2. primary, which includes the preparatory year and grades 1 to 4;
  3. secondary, which includes:
  • lower secondary school, which includes grades 5 to 8 and the lower grades of high school or arts and crafts school (grades 9 to 10);
  • upper secondary school, which includes the upper high-school grades (10 to 12/13);
  1. post high school. It is organised for professional qualifications established by the Ministry of National Education according to the National Register of Qualifications. In the post high school education may be enrolled high school graduates with or without baccalaureate diploma, the access being provided according to the general criteria established by the Ministry of National Education. Post high school education is provided in post high school units and in master workman schools. Both types of schools represent specialised training paths, with a duration of 1-3 years depending on qualification complexity.

On completion of secondary school, the highest level of qualification is the baccalaureate examination. The baccalaureate examination is a prerequisite for access to higher education.

Higher education is structured on three levels:

  • Bachelor’s courses;
  • Master’s courses;
  • Doctoral studies.

Compulsory general education consists of 11 grades and includes primary school, lower secondary school and the first two grades of upper secondary school. The state educational system is free of charge. Fees are charged, however, for some activities, as provided for by law. The Romanian language is used at all levels. Education may also take place in minority or international languages. The state educational institutions are predominant compared to the private ones.

The educational system is organised as full-time and part-time. Full-time education is compulsory. Home-based learning may be arranged for children with special educational needs or who cannot be moved.


The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers

The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in any decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in the different Member States. Only such a system will prevent a lack of recognition of professional qualifications becoming an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.

The main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU

As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to practise his or her profession freely in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements governing access to certain professions in host countries.

To overcome these differences the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. This system distinguishes between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.

Steps towards the transparency of qualifications in Europe

The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:

increased co-operation in vocational education and training, with the intention of combining all instruments for the transparency of certificates and diplomas into one single, user-friendly tool. This includes, for example, the European CV or the Europass Training.

The development of concrete actions in the field of recognition and quality in vocational education and training.

Going beyond differences in the education and training systems throughout the EU

Education and training systems in the EU Member States still reveal substantial differences. The latest enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.

In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has enacted a series of instruments aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.

  1. The European Qualifications Framework

The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee the smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.

  1. The National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs)

 A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role in the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.

  • The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

 The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.

  • Europass

 Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It comprises five standardised documents:

  • a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
  • a language passport,
  • certificate supplements,
  • diploma supplements, and
  • a Europass Mobility document.

The Europass system makes skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe. In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national Europass centres have been established as the primary contact points for people seeking for information about the Europass system.

Recognition of diplomas and qualifications in Romania

The recognition of diplomas and qualifications for the recognised professions in Romania applies to any citizen of an EU Member State or of the EEA who wants to work in Romania independently or as an employee. The institution responsible for the recognition of diplomas is the National Centre for Recognition and Equivalence of Diplomas in the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sport. The Centre also recognises the diplomas and study documents of foreign citizens requesting  work permits.

A diploma is a document or set of documents certifying the level of training, which:

§ was issued by a competent authority in an EU or EEA state;

§ certifies that the holder has completed a cycle of higher education of at least 3 years or of an equivalent duration in a longer term form of education or in a university, a higher education institution or another institution at a similar level, following training courses alongside the higher education cycle, where the state of origin imposes such conditions;

§ certifies the fact that the holder has the professional qualification required for a regulated profession or for occupying a job in the state of origin, only if the training certified by the documents mentioned in this paragraph was mainly obtained in the EU or EEA or where the holder of such documents has acquired professional experience of at least 3 years, certified in a Member State which recognises a diploma issued by a non-EU state.

Likewise, any document issued by a competent authority in a Member State is considered to be a diploma if it refers to training acquired in the EU or EEA. Diplomas should also be recognised by the competent authority of a Member State with an equivalent level to the above-mentioned ones, only if that State stipulates the same access rights to a profession regulated in the Member State of origin.


http://www.anoform.ro - National Employment Agency

http://igi.mai.gov.ro - Romanian Immigration Office

http://www.politiaromana.ro - Police

http://www.mai.gov.ro - Ministry of Interior

http://mmuncii.rom - Ministry of Labour

http://www.mfinante.ro - Ministry of Finance

http://www.cnas.ro - National Health Insurance Service

http://www.edu.ro - Ministry of Education

http://www.unibuc.ro - University of Bucharest

http://ase.edu.ro - Acedemy of Economic Sciences

http://www.upt.ro - Politechnic University Timisoara















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