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Новини

GENERAL INFORMATION

Area - 131 957 km2

Population – 10 767 709

Official Language – Greek

REGISTRATION AND RESIDENCE PERMITS

As an EU/EEA citizen, you can enter Greece simply by showing a valid identity card or passport. There is no entry visa requirement.

EU and EEA citizens have the right of free movement and access to the labour market throughout the European Union/European Economic Area. EU/EEA citizens may enter Greece to seek employment and stay for six months (three months and a further three months if they are looking for work).

EU/EEA nationals who wish to exercise a profession which in Greece is regulated by laws laying down the required qualifications and procedure for obtaining a licence, such as for lawyers, medical doctors, engineers, etc., must contact the competent body issuing licences to practise the profession.

For the purposes of travelling within the EU, forms which are common to all EU countries are issued by the competent authorities, e.g.:

  • U2 Portable Document, which allows unemployed people seeking job in another EU Member State to transfer their unemployment benefits for up to three months;
  • Forms E 411 and F 005, which concern family benefits;
  • U1 Portable Document, which is a certificate granted for the insurance and work periods and is used for purposes of receiving an unemployment benefit in another EU Member State;
  • Form E 205, which shows that the job seeker is insured in their country of origin, and is issued by the competent insurance body, e.g. IKA. The above administrative forms are issued by the last country of employment.

If you wish to stay in the country for more than three months, you must contact the police station of the area in which you are residing to obtain a registration certificate. A residence permit confirms your right to stay in the country as an employed person who is a citizen of an EU/EEA country. Essential requirements for residing in Greece are to be in employment or in possession of sufficient resources. If the conditions are met, a residence permit is issued for five years and may be renewed.

Each resident is given a personal tax registration number (AFM) for dealings with the tax authorities and another registration number (AMKA) for social security services.

Citizens of EU/EEA Member States can enter Greece freely and work without a special permit. EU citizens are issued with a residence permit for the pursuit of paid employment when they present a statement of engagement from an employer.

Dependent family members of an employed EU/EEA citizen enjoy the same rights as that person.

SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS

Application

The document used by the applicant to enter Greece.

The official document certifying the existence of family ties. Evidence that both the applicant and his or her family members have health insurance and sufficient funds.

Three (3) photographs.

Advice: In order to have sickness insurance cover you must have with you the European Health Insurance Card from your country of origin.

LOOKING FOR A JOB

The Manpower Employment Organisation (OAED) is the main body taking action on employment. It has employment promotion centres (EPC or EPC2) throughout Greece and staff to whom unemployed people can turn to find a job and receive guidance. They also organise active employment, self-employment and retraining programmes to improve the qualifications of unemployed people.

The OAED also has Greek EURES advisers who speak foreign languages and are specially trained. Their job is to help unemployed people find work in an EU country and to fill the job vacancies that employers in the European area have available. Similarly, they provide support and guidance to nationals of EU countries who are looking for work in Greece, informing them about the market and assisting them in their job search. They also provide information and act as an intermediary between jobseekers and employers as part of the European Jobs Network.

Unemployed people can also find work through private employment agencies which are authorised by the Ministry of Employment, Social Insurance and Social Solidarity and mediate in finding employment.

Mediation for finding employment does not entail any financial burden for employees. The cost for is borne by employers on behalf of whom the private employment agencies act as intermediate.

Newspapers are also an important source of information. Advertisements for managerial and specialist staff are usually both in Greek and English. Small ads papers and newspapers with employment pull-outs can be found at kiosks. Moreover, both on social media (in particular Facebook, Linkedin and Twitter) and on the Internet in general there are numerous websites, both private and public, advertising jobs in various sectors in Greece. Surfing the Internet and searching the ads are also popular ways of finding work in Greece. Both the OAED and private employment agencies have web portals or job search engines to provide information and assistance to jobseekers, who may also submit their CVs electronically via the above portals to a register which can be accessed only by employers. The EURES web portal is currently the most developed job search engine of its kind.

Certain universities, or other entities, often organise career fairs mainly for graduates and students in the last year of their studies, at which jobseekers can establish direct contact with interested employers.

Using social networks and asking friends and acquaintances whether they know of an employer who is looking for staff is often a good way of finding a job.

Searching specific companies’ websites for job vacancies corresponding to your interests and skills and then sending off your CV electronically is another good way of finding employment matching your qualifications.

INCOME AND TAXATION

The income of a natural or legal person from employment, a pension, an agricultural or business activity, properties, dividends, interest, royalties and appreciation of capital transfer is subject to tax in Greece. You must obtain a tax registration number (AFM) from the competent public revenue offices (DOY).

There is a single tax scale applicable to income earned from 01/01/2018 to 31/12/2018 from employment, a pension, business and agricultural activities. The tax rates range from 22% to 45% as follows: (a) 22% for income of up to EUR 20 000, (b) 29% for income from EUR 20 001 to EUR 30 000, (c) 37% for income from EUR 30 001 to EUR 40 000, and (d) for income above EUR 40 001 the tax rate is 45%. Income from agricultural activities is subject to a separate tax, while all other income is aggregated and taxed based on a single scale. The tax rates applicable to income from real estate range from 15% to 45%. Finally, a business tax of EUR 400 to 650 is levied on individuals with a business activity. Moreover, a special solidarity contribution is levied on natural persons’ income above EUR 12 000 on the basis of a scale ranging from 2.2% to 10%. In addition to the actual income, a tax may, under conditions, be levied on the imputed income, namely income that arises from application of the presumptions on maintenance costs and acquisition of assets. Legal persons and natural persons engaged in an agricultural or business activity are subject to a single tax rate of 29% and to advance tax payment of 100%. Advance tax payment means an amount equal to 100% of the tax arising only from business and agricultural activities, as well as from any difference of presumptions, after deducing any withheld and prepaid taxes. Exceptionally those who submit a tax return with income from business activities for the first time such advance tax payment is equal to 50%.

A tax reduction ranging from EUR 1 900 to EUR 2 100, calculated according to the number of dependent children, applies to the income tax levied on wage earners, pensioners and farmers. The reduction applies when taxable income does not exceed EUR 20 000. Otherwise, the applicable tax reduction is decreased by 1% of the part of the annual income over EUR 20 000. Moreover, there is a tax reduction for the same taxpayer categories, provided that during 2017 they have paid, using electronic payment methods (credit or debit cards, or e-banking), for purchases of goods or provision of services amounts that account for a specific percentage of their annual income, this percentage increasing depending on the income level. If the taxpayer does not cover the necessary amount, a 22% tax will be levied on the remaining amount. An exception from the obligation to earn the tax reduction through electronic payments for goods and services is granted to wage earners, pensioners and farmers over 70 years of age, those with at least 80% disability, those under judicial support on account of incapacity, as well as EU residents who are obliged to file tax returns in Greece and are subject to the tax scale applicable to wage earners and pensioners. Those categories of taxpayers must have made payments in cash equal to the percentage required and make the relevant receipts available to the tax office in order to benefit from the reduction in tax. Vulnerable social groups and special categories of taxpayers are fully exempted from that obligation. Note that the reduction in tax that resulted from expenses for medical visits, hospital care and medicines was repealed from 2018, which is expected to increase the tax burden on the taxpayers of these categories. In light of the above, the tax-free income allowance (salaries and pensions) is EUR 8 636.35 with no dependent children, EUR 8 863.64 with one dependent child, EUR 9 090.91 with two dependent children and EUR 9 545.45 with three or more dependent children.

Generally, tax reductions are provided for persons with at least 67% disability and special categories of taxpayers, such as victims of terrorist actions or war, or pensioners who took part in the National Resistance or the civil war. Moreover, donations give rise to a reduction in income tax of up to 10% provided that they exceed EUR 100 during the tax year and that the total donation amount does not exceed 5% of taxable income.

Taxable persons who are not resident for tax purposes in Greece do not qualify for tax allowance, save where their residence for tax purposes is in another EU or EEA Member State and (a) at least 90% of their income is earned in Greece and (b) they prove that their taxable income is so low that they qualify for tax exemption under the tax arrangements of their country of residence.

In addition to the taxes levied based on the annual tax returns, citizens must also pay other, direct or indirect, general or local taxes. More specifically, property owners are subject to a single property ownership rate (ENFIA). Also, a value added tax (VAT) of 24% is included in the price of most goods and services provided. However, certain goods and services, such as medicines and hotel accommodation, are subject to reduced rates of 13% and 6%. Excise duty is levied on heating oil and car owners pay a circulation tax that varies with the age and engine capacity of their vehicle. Taxpayers pay local taxes in the form of charges 

The annual earnings of salaried persons in the private sector (which are made up of 12 monthly salaries, a Christmas bonus, an Easter bonus and a summer leave allowance, are also subject to other deductions on top of income tax, namely deductions relating to health insurance, old-age pension insurance and unemployment insurance.

As of February 2019, the statutory minimum wage and the statutory minimum daily wage for full employment for all employees and workers throughout the country, without age discrimination, is as follows:

  • For employees, the minimum salary is six hundred and fifty euros (EUR 650.00).
  • For workers, the minimum daily wage is twenty-nine euros and four cents (EUR 29.04). Indicatively, the net remuneration of widespread professions are the following:
  • Senior executives and managers

EUR 1 522

  • Professionals

1 098

  • Technicians and other related professionals

1 007

  • Office workers

872

  • Service providers and salespersons

726

  • Unskilled workers

633

Under EU regulations, people who have worked in two or more EU countries are able to add together contributions paid in each state in order to qualify for a state pension. It is advisable to contact the social security ministry and the insurance provider in the country where you live and in the country where you last worked for more information.

COST OF LIVING

The cost of living compared to income remains quite high in Greece. The country is ranked 31st in the world in terms of consumer prices. With regard to restaurant prices, Greece is in 27th place. It is relatively cheap for residential rent where it ranks 88th. In terms of spending power it is in 51st place.

The cost of living is higher in semi-urban and touristic areas. In non-touristic areas the cost of living is lower because of the availability of local agricultural products, lower rents and lower expenditure on travel.

Here are a few examples of costs, on average:

Basic costs (electricity, heating, water, council tax) for an apartment of 85 m² EUR 150.00

Prepaid mobile charges per minute EUR 0.34

Monthly cost of internet connection EUR 26.94

Public transport ticket EUR 1.40

Starting fare for taxis EUR 3.40 with an 0.80 fee per kilometre

Unleaded petrol EUR 1.57

Pack of imported cigarettes EUR 4.20

Bottle of water (500 ml) from a kiosk EUR 0.5

Bottle of milk (1 litre) from a supermarket EUR 1.1

Bottle of wine (750 ml) from a supermarket EUR 6

Loaf of bread (500 g) EUR 0.80

Meal for 1 person in a restaurant EUR 10

Cappuccino coffee EUR 2.90

Local beer (500 ml) EUR 3.5

Drink in bar from EUR 5

Hot dog from EUR 0.90

Souvlaki (meat skewer) from EUR 2.00

EDUCATION SYSTEM

The educational system is subject to the general supervision of the Minister of Education, Research and Religious Affairs. At regional and local level, the regional directorates for education and the directorates for primary and secondary education respectively implement the national education policy and are also responsible for the supervision of school units. Under Article 16 of the Constitution, education is a fundamental duty of the State and is provided free of charge to all citizens in public educational facilities irrespective of their level of education.

The Greek education system is divided into three levels:

  1. Primary education

For preschool education, there are nurseries and day care centres, which are subject to the supervision of the municipalities. Children are enrolled from the age of 6 months (or from the age of 2 months under specific conditions) until they reach the age of enrolment in compulsory education. Primary education includes nursery schools and primary schools. Children attend nursery school for two years.  They are enrolled at the age of 5 years (compulsory attendance) and at the age of 4 years (attendance becomes gradually compulsory within three years based on the new Law 4521/2018). Then they must attend primary school for six years, from the age of 6 to 12.

  1. Secondary education

Secondary education comprises two levels of study. The first level is compulsory and corresponds to Lower Secondary School, which lasts three years and covers the ages from 12 to 15. The second level is not compulsory and is divided into the General Upper Secondary School or the vocational educational institutions (Vocational Upper Secondary School – EPAL – and Vocational Schools – EPAS of the Greek Manpower Employment Organisation – OAED, for graduates who have completed at least the first class of Upper Secondary School). Attendance is for three years at General Upper Secondary Schools and for two years at Vocational Schools. Vocational education is followed by a traineeship of 9 months for Vocational Upper Secondary Schools (EPAL) and 2 years for Vocational Schools (EPAS).

There are also special nursery, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary classes for pupils with special educational needs as well as music, ecclesiastical and sports lower and upper secondary schools. For working pupils, there are Evening Upper and Lower Secondary Schools.

Alongside public schools, there are also private schools with the same curriculum, but the percentage of pupils attending such schools is quite low compared to the average of the OECD countries (around 5%). Also, despite the financial crisis, the percentage of early school leavers is still lower compared to the EU average (6% compared to 10.6% in the EU in 2017 for pupils aged 18-24), while the percentage of early school leavers in primary education is almost zero.  However, the percentage of young people of the same age group who are not in employment, education or training (NEETs) is rather higher compared to the average of the OECD and EU countries (23% compared to 15% and 14% for 2017, respectively).

  1. Higher education

Higher education is the last level in the formal education system.  Admission is based on annual written examinations. Undergraduate studies usually last for 4 years, while postgraduate studies are for one to two years and doctoral studies last for at least 3 calendar years. Higher education includes the University sector (universities, polytechnics, School of Fine Arts) & the Technological sector [technological  educational institutions (ATEI)] and the School of Pedagogical and Technological Education (ASPETE). The Hellenic Open University also offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses, which does not require any examinations, but the payment of fees.        

Non-formal education/training:

Non-formal education is education provided outside the framework of the formal education system by public or private institutions and can lead to the acquisition of nationally recognised certificates. The main institutions offering such education are:

  • Vocational training institutes (IEK), which provide initial vocational training to graduates from non-compulsory formal secondary education,
  • lifelong learning centres, which provide continuous vocational training, general education for adults, career guidance and lifelong counselling, and
  • colleges, which provide non-formal education and training.

Lifelong learning for adults is provided by vocational training centres (KEK). The KEK provide special training programmes for unemployed people. Most of the programmes are funded by the Ministry of Labour, Social Security and Social Solidarity and the European Social Fund (ESF).

DOATAP (Hellenic National Academic Recognition Information Centre) is the competent body for the recognition of degrees from foreign universities and technological institutes and for the provision of information relating to higher studies abroad and in Greece.

RECOGNITION OF DIPLOMAS AND QUALIFICATIONS

The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers

The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in the decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in different Member States. Only such a system will ensure that a lack of recognition of professional qualifications will become an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.

Main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU

As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to freely practice their profession in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements for access to certain professions in the host country.

For the purpose of overcoming these differences, the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. Within the terms of this system, a distinction is made between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.

Steps towards a transparency of qualifications in Europe

The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:

  • An increased co-operation in vocational education and training, with the intention to combine all instruments for transparency of certificates and diplomas, in one single, user-friendly tool. This includes, for example, the European CV or Europass Trainings.
  • The development of concrete actions in the field of recognition and quality in vocational education and training.

Going beyond the differences in education and training systems throughout the EU

Education and training systems in the EU Member States still show substantial differences. The last enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.

In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has put forward a series of instruments, aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.

  1. The European Qualifications Framework

The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee a smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.

  1. The National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs)

A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.

  1. The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.

  1. Europass

Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It is composed of five standardised documents

  • a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
  • a language passport,
  • certificate supplements,
  • diploma supplements, and
  • a Europass-Mobility document.

The Europass system makes skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe. In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national Europass centres have been established as the primary contact points for people seeking for information about the Europass system.

USEFUL LINKS

http://www.kep.gov.gr/portal/page/portal/kep - Services Centre for Citizens

http://www.mopocp.gov.gr/main.php - Ministry of Education and Religion, Centre in Help of Citizens

http://www.doatap.gr - Recognition of Diplomas and Qualifications

 

 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL INFORMATION

Area - 301,340 km2

Population – 60,359,546

Official Language – Italian

REGISTRATION AND RESIDENCE PERMITS

All European Union citizens have the right freely to enter and reside in Italy, with different arrangements applying depending on whether the stay is shorter or longer than three months. For stays in Italy of up to three months, no conditions or formalities are required, apart from holding valid ID for travel abroad. The same conditions also apply to family members who accompany or join an EU citizen; this includes, in particular: a spouse; a partner in a registered partnership with the European Union citizen where, according to the law in one Member State, that partnership is the equivalent of marriage in the host Member State; direct descendants under the age of 21 or who are dependants and those of the spouse or partner; dependent direct relatives in the ascending line and those of the spouse or partner.

Family members with non-EU citizenship must hold a valid passport and, where required, an entry visa, unless they already hold a valid ‘residence card of a family member of an EU citizen’.

EU citizens have the right to stay in Italy for over three months, if they:

  • are employed or self-employed in Italy;
  • have sufficient financial resources for themselves and their family members not to become a burden on the country’s social assistance system during their period of residence and have comprehensive health insurance cover or equivalent in the country;
  • are enrolled at a recognised public or private institution to study or undergo vocational training and have sufficient financial resources for themselves and their family members not to become a burden on the country’s social assistance system during their period of residence and have comprehensive health insurance cover in the country;
  • are family members accompanying or joining an EU citizen with the right to reside for over three months.

EU citizens or their family members can, based on the duration of their stay, declare their presence in Italy at a State Police station by means of a declaration of presence.

If you do not make this declaration of presence, it is presumed – unless otherwise indicated – that the period of residence will last over three months.

If you intend to reside for more than three months in Italy for work (as an employee or self-employed), study or elective stay, you must apply for registration for yourself and any family members living with you, at the public records office of the municipality in which you have decided to live.

Family members who are not EU nationals must go to the Questura (police headquarters) to apply for a residence permit for family members of EU citizens.

For any information, you may find addresses for police headquarters located throughout Italy on the State Police website.

LOOKING FOR A JOB

To help you to find a job in Italy, you can register as unemployed with a job centre (CPI) in any part of Italy. In addition to performing administrative tasks, CPIs also provide guidance and advisory services, short training courses and matching skills and jobs.

To find your nearest CPI, you can search in the ‘Cerca lo sportello’ [branch locator] section on the portal of the National Agency for Active Employment Policies (ANPAL) www.anpal.gov.it.   Job offers covering the whole of Italy are also published on the portal, as well as news and information about the world of work and careers. In order to apply for jobs, you need to register and upload your CV.

The EURES service is in operation at each CPI and provides information on vacancies in the European Economic Area and guidance and advice on living and working conditions in different European countries.

You can also contact private job agencies; approximately 4 000 of these are currently authorised by the Ministry of Employment and Social Policy and appear in the job agencies’ register.

In addition to dedicated newsletters and magazines, many daily and weekly newspapers also publish regional and national classified job advertisements.

There are also different tools that you can use to research companies in order to send a spontaneous application such as, for example, the Pagine Gialle, Guida Monaci, and Kompass.

The internet also provides a wealth of resources, such as company websites, Chambers of Commerce websites, specialist private portals and the growing phenomenon of social media use (Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, etc.).

Currently in Italy, not all employment opportunities are conveyed via official/institutional research and selection channels; some are in fact linked to personal networks and existing contacts from work or school.

It is possible (from 1 July 2015 when restrictions will no longer apply to Croatian citizens) for all European Union citizens to undertake self-employed and employed work without needing to obtain authorisation to work – with the sole exception of activities reserved for Italian citizens – following the principle of equal treatment with Italian citizens.

INCOME AND TAXATION

Remuneration is the employer’s main obligation to the worker in return for the work performed (see Articles 2094 and 2099 of the Italian Civil Code). In Italy, remuneration must be based on an agreement between the parties on the basis of the contractual minimum under the relevant collective contract. Remuneration is frequently expressed net of direct taxes withheld at source and of social security contributions borne by the employer and the employee and includes all various forms of consideration paid, including the basic salary and connected bonuses, benefits in cash or in kind (basic pay, special supplementary allowances, additional months, performance bonuses and any other benefits). The amount of each individual item of pay is usually established in the individual or collective employment contract. Italy’s real average wages are the lowest among the leading industrialised countries of Europe: the average net monthly income in Italy is EUR 1 560 (2016). In the 2009-2019 period, inflation-adjusted income decreased by 2%.

Equal pay for equal work is a principle of the Italian labour system only with regard to the work of women compared to the work of men and of workers who are minors compared to adult workers (Article 37 of the Italian Constitution).

Taxation on personal income (IRPEF) is a direct, progressive tax, proportional to the actual total of all income received by the taxpayer, who pays tax on the basis of income bands. The rates remained unchanged in 2017, ranging from 23% to 43% across five bands.

Value added tax (IVA) is a consumption tax affecting every stage of production for specified goods and services. The standard rate in Italy is 22%, following an increase which came into force on 1 October 2013.

Local taxes are taxes on housing – namely property tax (IMU) – calculated on the basis of municipal rates (excluding first homes), taxes on waste (TARI), and taxes on shared services which are paid by the owner or tenant (excluding first homes). These taxes vary from one city to another.

Vehicle taxes are applied to vehicles and motor vehicles and are managed by the regions; the tariffs used for calculation are based on kW or horsepower.

COST OF LIVING

The cost of food expenditure in Italy is 2.1% higher than the European average, and has a strong influence on income, absorbing more than one sixth of family income. A family’s average food expenditure, EUR 457, is 6% more expensive. The cost of living in the south of the country with regard to food expenditure is significantly lower.

In fact, living expenses (food, bills, taxes, etc.) account for more than 70% of household income, 10% more than the European Union average of 60%. The difference is due to less disposable income, which for Italian families is 25% lower than the European average. Public transport is the cheapest in the EU, but the cost of owning a car (motor vehicle insurance, vehicle tax, fuel) is 42% higher than the European average. In fact, the cost of fuel alone is 8.9% higher.

According to a recent study by ADOC (the Association for Consumer Protection and Guidance), the costs of breakfast, rent, public transport, cinema and mobile phone calls are in fact lower in Italy than the European average, as opposed to domestic utilities (lighting, water, gas and waste), private transport, eating out and food expenditure.

The price of clothing in Italy is very similar to average prices in the EU, while the cost of consumer electronics in various EU countries, from mobile phones to tablet computers, do not differ greatly from one another.  According to a study carried out by the National Consumer Union (UNC) in 2018, the cheapest cities in Italy (based on the rising cost of living) are Potenza and Ancona, while the most expensive cities are Bolzano and Reggio Emilia.

Text last edited on: 09/2019

EDUCATION SYSTEM

Compulsory education lasts 10 years, from six to 16 years of age. It comprises the eight years of the first cycle of education and the first two years of the second cycle, which can be spent in upper secondary schools – run by the State – or attending regional vocational training courses. Moreover, all young people have the right and duty of education and training for at least 12 years or until they obtain a three-year vocational qualification by the age of 18. Compulsory education can be delivered by State schools or officially recognised semi-private schools, which together make up the public education system; alternatively, it can be obtained from non-accredited private schools or by means of home schooling. However, in the two latter cases, for the compulsory schooling requirement to be satisfied, certain conditions apply, including taking examinations. On completion of the compulsory education period, which is usually the end of the second year of upper secondary school, those pupils who do not continue their schooling are issued a certification of competences acquired. Pupils who complete their upper secondary schooling, passing the State examination, can access tertiary education (universities, art and music academies and technical colleges). Some university degree programmes are on a limited access basis and applicants must pass an entry test. A major reform of the Italian university system has been undertaken, which provides qualifications in two cycles: a 3-year degree (Laurea – L) and a specialist or master’s degree involving a further 2 years of specialist study (Laurea Specialistica – LS). There are also single-cycle degrees, where a qualification is not awarded after the first three years, but only at the end of the cycle when a master’s degree is awarded.

RECOGNITION OF DIPLOMAS AND QUALIFICATIONS

The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers

The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in the decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in different Member States. Only such a system will ensure that a lack of recognition of professional qualifications will become an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.

Main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU

As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to freely practice their profession in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements for access to certain professions in the host country.

For the purpose of overcoming these differences, the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. Within the terms of this system, a distinction is made between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.

Steps towards a transparency of qualifications in Europe

The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:

  • An increased co-operation in vocational education and training, with the intention to combine all instruments for transparency of certificates and diplomas, in one single, user-friendly tool. This includes, for example, the European CV or Europass Trainings.
  • The development of concrete actions in the field of recognition and quality in vocational education and training.

Going beyond the differences in education and training systems throughout the EU

Education and training systems in the EU Member States still show substantial differences. The last enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.

In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has put forward a series of instruments, aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.

  1. The European Qualifications Framework

The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee a smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.

  1. The National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs)

A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.

  1. The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.

  1. Europass

Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It is composed of five standardised documents

  • a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
  • a language passport,
  • certificate supplements,
  • diploma supplements, and
  • a Europass-Mobility document.

The Europass system makes skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe. In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national Europass centres have been established as the primary contact points for people seeking for information about the Europass system.

USEFUL LINKS

https://www.governo.it - Government

http://www.welfare.gov.it - Labour Authority

http://www.lavoro.gov.it - Ministry of Labour

http://www.agenziaentrate.it - Taxes

http://www.inps.it - Social Security

http://www.salute.gov.it - Health

http://www.istruzione.it; www.miur.it - Education

http://www.cimea.it - Recognition of qualifications

http://www.poliziadistato.it - Police

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL INFORMATION

Area - 65,300 km2

Population – 2,794,329 (2020)

Official Language – Lithuanian, Polish, Russian

REGISTRATION AND RESIDENCE PERMITS

A non-national seeking permanent or temporary residence in the Republic of Lithuania must obtain a residence permit by following the procedure provided for in the legislation of the Republic of Lithuania. Non-nationals are issued with two types of permit authorising them to reside in the Republic of Lithuania: a permanent residence permit or a temporary residence permit. Temporary residence permits for the Republic of Lithuania are issued to non-nationals who are not nationals of an EU Member State. Non-nationals must submit initial applications for a temporary residence permit and other documents to the Lithuanian diplomatic mission or consular body in the country concerned, whilst non-nationals staying in Lithuania must submit them to the migration office of the county’s police headquarters serving the area in which the non-national intends to reside. A temporary residence permit is usually issued for a year, though it may also be issued for a shorter period. An application for a permanent residence permit and other documents must be submitted to the migration office of the county’s police headquarters serving the area in which the non-national intends to declare as their place of residence. A permanent residence permit is issued to a non-national for 5 years. At the end of this period, the permit is renewed. An application for a temporary/permanent residence permit must be examined within 6 months of the submission of the application. Non-nationals who are nationals of another EU Member State may enter the Republic of Lithuania and stay for up to 3 months from the first day of arrival. EU Member State nationals and their family members who stay in the Republic of Lithuania for longer than 3 months, within a 6-month period, must obtain a certificate that attests their right to stay in the Republic of Lithuania. Such a certificate may be issued to EU Member State nationals and their family members for up to 5 years. Nationals of member states of the European Free Trade Association and their family members exercising the right of free movement of persons are subject to the same provisions as EU Member State nationals and their family members.

LOOKING FOR A JOB

EU Member State nationals and their family members intending to work in the Republic of Lithuania under an employment contract do not need a work permit. They may take part in recruitment procedures and find employment under the same conditions as Lithuanian nationals. However, please note that individuals wishing to work in the civil service, law enforcement institutions and in certain other areas must be citizens of the Republic of Lithuania.

Employers wishing to hire staff have a number of search options open to them, as do the unemployed and those in work who are looking to change jobs. Firstly, they can use the services of the Employment Service. The Employment Service is provided free of charge.

Another way of finding employees or employers is via private employment agencies. Since the ratification and entry into force of the Convention on private employment agencies (‘On the ratification of the Convention on private employment agencies’ (Valstybės žinios [Official Gazette] 2004, No 40-1291), the services of private employment agencies have been free of charge for job seekers in Lithuania. Infringements of the regulations on the provision of recruitment services are punishable by a fine (Article 173(13) of the Code of Administrative Infringements). Anyone who has witnessed such infringements, or who has been affected by them, should contact the police.

Job vacancy advertisements can also be found in the media. Ads are placed in job advertising publications, national daily newspapers and the local press. Job seekers may also place their own ads in the press, indicating their qualifications, work experience and the type of job they are seeking.

The posting of vacancies and CVs on the internet is becoming increasingly popular, as are the services of professional personnel companies that help to search for, select and assess potential employees. In addition, the personnel departments of major companies often build up databases of potential employees, so it is possible to send one’s CV to such companies directly.

INCOMES AND TAXATION

The Lithuanian government sets the minimum hourly pay (EUR 3.39 per hour) and the minimum  monthly wage (EUR 555 per month) in accordance with the Law on Wages. The hourly pay or monthly wages of an employee may not be lower than the minimum hourly pay or the minimum monthly wage set by the Lithuanian government. The minimum monthly wage for an employee can only be paid for manual work.

The average monthly wage before tax (excluding individual companies) in the third quarter of 2018 was EUR 935.7, according to Statistics Lithuania. In Lithuania, taxes must be paid only by permanent residents; non-permanent residents pay taxes in the cases provided for by law.

As of 2019, it was decided to make almost all taxes deductible from gross wages, i.e. from 2019:

  • the following ‘employee’ taxes will be deducted from the agreed wage:
    • 20% or 27% personal income tax;
    • 19.50% social insurance rates;
    • 1.8%–3% pension saving contributions (if selected by the employee);
  • the following ‘employer’ taxes will be added on to the agreed wage:
    • 1.45% social insurance rates;
    • 0,32% guarantee fund and long-term unemployment contributions.

Earnings received from employers under employment or equivalent relationships are subject to 15 % income tax . The income tax on wages is calculated and paid into the budget by employers. Pre-tax earnings are subject to a personal allowance. The higher the income, the smaller the personal allowance. A maximum personal allowance of EUR 380 per month of the 2018 taxable period is applied to residents whose income from employment does not exceed EUR 400 per month (the minimum monthly wage as of 1 January 2018). The applicable monthly personal allowance for residents whose monthly income from employment will be higher than the monthly minimum wage effective from 1 January of the current calendar year (1 January 2018 – EUR 400) is calculated according to the following formula: Personal allowance = EUR 380 - 0.5 x (‘Monthly wage’ - EUR 400).

It should be noted that, for the purposes of calculating the annual personal allowance, maternity/paternity allowances, income from individual activities, income from the sale or other disposal of property not used for individual activities, income from the leasing of property, interest, income from distributed profits, income of a member of an unlimited liability entity received from the entity’s taxable profit, royalties, fees, annual payments (bonuses) to members of the management and supervisory board, pensions and rents, maintenance awarded by court or received under contract, benefits under life insurance contracts, pension annuities, lottery and gambling winnings as well as prizes in sporting competitions are counted as annual income of a permanent resident of Lithuania in addition to income from employment and equivalent relationships received during the income tax period.

The tax allowance is important, as this portion of income is not subject to individual income tax. An additional personal allowance, which applied to people raising children, was abolished in 2018. As of the beginning of 2018, it was replaced by child benefit equal to 0.79 of the basic social benefit, which, in 2018, amounted to EUR 30 for each child.

CHI contributions shall are required to be paid by all permanent residents of Lithuania (unless the CHI contributions are paid for them by the employer or the state). Self-insured people are required to pay CHI contributions equal to 6.98% of the minimum monthly wage (which is EUR 555 in 2019, meaning that the CHI contribution are EUR 38.74) each month until the last day of the current month. All persons (both with and without CHI) are allowed to visit public and municipal as well as private health care institutions. The difference is that the uninsured have to cover all health care services in both private and state as well as municipal health care institutions out of their own pockets.

The income tax period is coincides with a calendar year. For income received by a non-permanent resident through a permanent establishment in Lithuania, the first income tax payment period is considered to be the calendar year in which the permanent establishment was or should have been registered. Each permanent resident of Lithuania is entitled to personal income tax relief and can recover some of their expenditure, e.g. life assurance premiums, voluntary pension saving contributions, tuition fees for vocational, higher university/non-university education.

COST OF LIVING

Although basic outgoings on food, housing and transport in Lithuania are the lowest in the Baltic states, they account for almost half of average household income. For the optimum food basket (as compiled by dieticians), transport and housing, a four-person family in Vilnius spends an average of EUR 518.13 per month. Around 44% of the net income of Lithuanians (which in the case of a four-person family is around EUR 1 188) goes on basics. The optimum basket of food products for a four-person family per month in Lithuania costs EUR 288.50. Eurostat data show that most of the inhabitants of the Baltic states live in housing which belongs to them or their family members. The proportion of such people in Lithuania is 85 %. For those owning property, expenditure on housing is lower than for those renting or paying a mortgage. A four-person family living in a 70 square metre apartment in an old building will spend an average of EUR 201.20 per month on their accommodation in Vilnius. Currently, buying property with a mortgage is a cheaper option than renting. Nevertheless, the basic obstacle for most people here is the initial down payment, which in the case of an old building may be as much as 25% of the total cost.

Text last edited on: 05/2019

EDUCATION SYSTEM

Pre-school education.

Pre-school education under a pre-school education programme is provided to children from birth to the age of 6. Institutional pre-school education is not compulsory and is provided if the parents so wish. It may be mandatory in individual cases (for children from ‘social risk families’, etc.). Pre-school education is provided by state and non-state crèches, kindergartens, and nursery schools.

Pre-primary education

The duration of pre-primary education is 1 year. It is provided to 6 year-old (in exceptional cases, to 5 year-olds) children and is intended to better prepare them for school. It is free of charge, public, but is not compulsory. Parents may decide whether to avail of education for their 6 year-old child under a pre-primary education programme.

Pre-primary education groups are established at kindergartens or schools. In remote villages, municipalities can set up such groups in multifunctional community centres or provide free school bus rides to the closest school which has such a group. Municipalities are offered flexible models of pre-primary groups: several days a week, at weekends, during school holidays, camps, etc. 
In pre-primary groups, children learn new skills which will be useful to them at school: to communicate with peers and adults, and to adapt to a new environment. Children’s social, health protection, world knowledge, and artistic competences are developed mostly through play. If a child receives education at home, their parents are informed about new developments in pre-primary education and advised on important issues for the child’s education. If the parents so wish, their child can be provided with special pedagogical and psychological assistance free of charge.

Primary education is compulsory for all children who reach the age of 7 during that calendar year. A 6 year-old child may also be admitted to grade one if they received education under a pre-primary education programme during the previous year. Conclusions of specialists of municipal pedagogical psychological services regarding the preparedness of a child are not mandatory. Primary education covers grades 1–4 (usually for 7-11 year olds). Primary grades may be established in school kindergartens as well as in primary, basic schools, pro-gymnasiums (general education institutions for lower grades), and gymnasiums (general education institutions for higher grades).

Admission. In order to register a child with a primary school, you should contact the administration of the school. Usually, a school admits children living within its catchment area (according to the declared place of residence). However, if there are vacant places in a class, the school may also admit children from other areas. Admission may take place during the whole school year. For the list of documents to be submitted, admission dates, need for registration of the place of residence, and other issues, the chosen school should be contacted.

Fees. Primary education, except for private education institutions, is free of charge. Parents pay for additional services such as catering and childcare after lessons. Fees in private schools differ significantly and may range from EUR 58 to EUR 14 999 per year.

Language. Usually, it is Lithuanian. There are institutions which provide education in other languages: English, Russian, Polish, French, German, Belarussian, etc.

Lower secondary education is compulsory and covers grades 5–10. Usually, these schools are attended by children aged 11 to 16. They receive education in schools, pro-gymnasiums, and gymnasiums. Lower secondary education of grades 9–10 corresponds to gymnasium grades I–II . In Lithuania, education is compulsory until the age of 16. The purpose of this education programme is to provide basic moral, socio-cultural and civic education, general literacy, the basics of technological literacy as well as to cultivate national consciousness, to foster the ability to seek and make decisions and choices and to continue learning.

The content and process of teaching at a national level are described in documents approved by the Minister of Education and Science. Lower secondary and secondary education programmes in general education plans define the guidelines for lower secondary education, the general scope of study subjects, target learning outcomes, recommendations for the organisation of the education process, etc. General programmes of primary and lower secondary education define the goals, structure, and expected learning outcomes. With reference to general plans and general programmes, school management and teachers drawn up teaching plans at a school and class level as well as those adapted for individual school students, i.e. individualised plans.

The content of lower secondary education under general programmes covers the following areas of subjects:

  • moral education (ethics and different religions or cognitive programmes);
  • language (mother tongue, national language, and foreign languages);
  • mathematics;
  • natural sciences;
  • social education (history, geography, citizenship education, economics and entrepreneurship, psychology);
  • artistic education (art, dance, music, theatre, and contemporary arts);
  • information technology;
  • technology;
  • physical education;
  • development of general competences and life skills.

Admission. Usually, a school admits children living within its catchment area (according to the declared place of residence). However, if there are vacant places in a class, the school may also admit children from other areas. Admission may take place during the whole school year. For the list of documents to be submitted, admission dates, need for registration of the place of residence, and other issues, the chosen school should be contacted.

Fees. Education, except for private general education schools, is free of charge. Parents pay only for additional services.

Language. Usually, it is Lithuanian. There are institutions which provide education in other languages: English, French, Russian, Polish, etc.

Lower secondary education attainment. Lower secondary education is attained upon completing grade 10 (or grade II in the gymnasium) and passing the compulsory basic education learning achievement test (PUPP).

Upper secondary education is not compulsory and lasts for 2 years (grades III and IV of gymnasium or grades 11 and 12 of secondary school). School students learn according to individual education plans. The programme may include vocational education programme modules. The upper secondary education programme is available in secondary schools, gymnasiums, and vocational schools.

School students can also choose education that better meets their values, world view, religious beliefs, and philosophical views. Such education is provided in non-traditional schools. Non-traditional schools may operate according to programmes drawn up by themselves; however, the total number of study subjects and hours allocated to an individual study subject in grades 1–12 may not differ by more than 25% from those provided in state general education plans.

Vocational training programmes are intended for persons of various ages and levels of education,

who seek to acquire the qualifications or skills needed to carry out a legally-regulated job or profession. Initial vocational training programmes lead to the award of an initial qualification, whilst continued vocational training programmes top up existing qualifications or help with the acquisition of additional qualifications. Vocational training schools also allow individuals to acquire lower or upper secondary education in addition to a qualification. Initial vocational training is financed from the state budget and is available to persons aged 14 and above. The top graduates from vocational training schools or graduates with work experience in line with their vocational qualifications are awarded additional points to attend institutes of higher education.

Studies at Lithuanian higher education institutions can be pursued under study programmes which award degrees or programmes that do not lead to a degree. Study programmes awarding degrees fall into two categories: those run by colleges and those run by universities. There are three levels of studies: the first leads to a professional bachelor’s degree or a bachelor’s degree; the second leads to a master’s degree, and the third leads to a doctorate. Professional bachelor degree programmes are run by colleges, and bachelor degree programmes by universities. Programmes leading to a second-level degree may only be run by universities, while third-level study programmes can only be offered by universities or universities together with research institutes. Students of Lithuanian schools of higher education either pay their tuition themselves or receive state funding. Priority for state scholarships for first-level programmes is given to students according to their performance in the final examinations, education, other results and special abilities.

Adult education is available to anyone aged 18 or over who selects this type of education. If a person has not completed lower or upper secondary education, they can study at upper secondary colleges for adults, education centres or colleges of general education with classes for adults.

Persons holding an education diploma and/or qualifications awarded abroad and who wish to study or work in Lithuania may need to apply to the bodies responsible for the assessment and recognition of foreign diplomas and qualifications in Lithuania. Persons who have finished vocational education at an institution abroad and require the vocational qualification they have obtained to be recognised (assessed) in Lithuania should apply to the body for the assessment and recognition of qualifications in Lithuania. A vocational qualification can be recognised only if the profession is regulated in Lithuania. For the academic recognition of foreign higher education diplomas, holders must apply to the Centre for Quality Assessment in Higher Education. Information on educational opportunities in Lithuania is provided by the AIKOS open information, advice and guidance system.  This helps users (pupils, students, employees and other interested parties) to plan their studies or vocational careers by providing them with the information they need on professions, qualifications, study and training programmes, institutes of education and science, admission rules, training licences, Europass certificate supplements, statistics on training and job vacancies, etc.

RECOGNITION OF DIPLOMAS AND QUALIFICATIONS

The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers

The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in the decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in different Member States. Only such a system will ensure that a lack of recognition of professional qualifications will become an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.

Main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU

As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to freely practice their profession in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements for access to certain professions in the host country.

For the purpose of overcoming these differences, the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. Within the terms of this system, a distinction is made between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.

Steps towards a transparency of qualifications in Europe

The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:
- An increased co-operation in vocational education and training, with the intention to combine all instruments for transparency of certificates and diplomas, in one single, user-friendly tool. This includes, for example, the European CV or Europass Trainings.
- The development of concrete actions in the field of recognition and quality in vocational education and training.

Going beyond the differences in education and training systems throughout the EU

Education and training systems in the EU Member States still show substantial differences. The last enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.

In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has put forward a series of instruments, aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.

  1. The European Qualifications Framework

The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee a smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.

  1. The National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs)

A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.

  1. The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.

  1. Europass

Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It is composed of five standardised documents

  1. a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
  2. a language passport,
  3. certificate supplements,
  4. diploma supplements, and
  5. a Europass-Mobility document.

The Europass system makes skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe. In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national Europass centres have been established as the primary contact points for people seeking for information about the Europass system.

USEFUL LINKS

http://www.sodra.com - National Social Security Fund

http://www.on.it/ - Yellow Pages

http://www.finmin.it - Ministry of Finance

www.smm.it - Ministry of Education

http://www.ldb.it - National Empoyment Service

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL INFORMATION

Area - 2,586.4 km2

Population – 613,894

Official Language – Luxembourgish, French, German

REGISTRATION AND RESIDENCE PERMITS

The formalities which need to be completed in order to move to Luxembourg differ depending on whether the person wishing to move is a national of an EU Member State or of an assimilated country, or of a non-EU country.

Nationals of EU Member States or of assimilated countries and their family members

European Union nationals and their family members who are also EU nationals or nationals of an assimilated country wishing to come to Luxembourg for less than 3 months (holiday, family visit, business trip, professional activity, etc.) are not required to complete any administrative formalities.

They need only hold a valid national identity card or passport.

EU nationals have the right to stay in Luxembourg for more than 3 months provided they meet one of the following conditions:

  • they work in an employed or self-employed capacity;
  • they have sufficient resources for themselves and their family members so as not to become a burden on the social security system, as well as health insurance;
  • they are registered in an approved public or private education establishment in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, for the principal purpose of completing a course of study or, within that context, vocational training. In this case, they must also have sufficient resources for themselves and their family members so as not to become a burden on the social security system, as well as health insurance.

Assimilated countries with respect to the European Union are Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, as States party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area (EEA), and the Swiss Confederation.


Nationals of EU Member States or of assimilated countries and their family members (irrespective of nationality) are required to declare their arrival to the local authority responsible for the locality in which they are staying if they intend to stay in Luxembourg for more than three months.

Declarants must report to the local authority of the place of arrival with the following documentation:

  • a valid identity card or passport (accompanied, where necessary, by a visa or a residence permit issued by another EU Member State);
  • where appropriate, a family record book or, failing that:
    • a marriage or partnership certificate;
    • children’s birth certificates.

The local authority may request further documentation. It is therefore advisable to contact the relevant local authority in advance to make enquiries about this.

If the documents are not written in German, French or English, a translation by a certified translator must be enclosed with them.

After declaring their arrival to the local authority, declarants may request a residence certificate for themselves and their family members. A certificate of this kind justifies the granting of special leave to allow a salaried worker to move house.

Within 90 days of arriving in Luxembourg, declarants must also report to the local authority offices to complete:

Nationals of non-EU countries

Nationals of countries outside the EU who are not family members of a national of an EU Member State (or assimilated country) must declare their arrival to the local authority responsible for the locality in which they are staying within three days of arriving in Luxembourg, irrespective of the planned length of stay.

If the stay is less than three months, they are exempt from making this declaration if they have completed an accommodation sheet [‘fiche d’hébergement’] at an establishment which provides accommodation (e.g. a hotel).

Nationals of non-EU countries who are staying in Luxembourg for less than three months must declare their arrival to the local authority and submit:

  • a valid travel document, where appropriate accompanied by a visa;
  • where appropriate, a family record book or, failing that:
    • a marriage or partnership certificate;
    • children’s birth certificates.

Nationals of non-EU countries who stay in Luxembourg for more than three months must present themselves to the local authority of arrival with the following documentation:

  • an original residence permit obtained before entering the territory of Luxembourg;
  • a valid passport accompanied, where appropriate, by the requisite visa or a valid residence document issued by another Member State within the Schengen Area;
  • where appropriate, a family record book or, failing that:
    • a marriage or partnership certificate;
    • children’s birth certificates.

The local authority may request further documentation. It is therefore advisable to contact the relevant local authority in advance to make enquiries about this.

If the documents are not written in German, French or English, a translation by a certified translator must be enclosed with them.

Within 90 days of arriving, nationals of non-EU countries holding a temporary residence permit who wish to stay in Luxembourg for more than 90 days must request the residence document corresponding to the category of their residence permit (salaried employee, self-employed worker, trainee, etc.) from the Immigration Directorate of the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs (www.guichet.public.lu).

LOOKING FOR A JOB

Where to find jobs advertised

  • The Luxembourg public employment service, ADEM (Agence pour le développement de l’emploi), offers an online service, the JobBoard, to registered jobseekers and employers. Jobseekers’ profiles are automatically and anonymously published there and can also be viewed by registered employers. Candidates can also post their CVs online and have access to anonymised job offers submitted to the ADEM by companies.
  • However, the offers are not yet available on the ADEM website.
  • In the national press (Luxemburger Wort, La Voix – Saturday editions);
  • On private websites for performing job searches and posting a CV online (see other addresses under ‘Links’).
  • On the websites of large companies/employment agencies.

Registering with a temporary employment agency

You may register either at the agency itself or by post, and provide a CV, photo and photocopy of your identity card. The addresses of the main Luxembourg temp agencies can be found on the FEDIL Employment Services – Temporary Employment website (FES, see ‘Links’).

Sending a speculative application

Speculative applications are commonly used in Luxembourg to contact large companies, especially by young graduates. Therefore, you should not hesitate to apply in this way, as it gives you an opportunity to be noticed and to be listed in the database of potential candidates, if the company’s HR services have one.

INCOMES AND TAXATION

Thanks to the minimum wage and relatively low taxes, incomes are attractive. Social security contributions are lower than in neighbouring countries. Detailed information can be found on the websites given under ‘Links’.

The different VAT rates are as follows:

Super-reduced rate: 3 % (e.g. foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, restaurants)

Reduced rate: 8%

Intermediate rate: 14 % (e.g. adult clothing, wine)

Standard rate: 17 % (e.g. alcohol, beer, adult shoes)

The wealth tax on residents and non-residents was abolished on 1 January 2006.

Deductions from salary:

Taxes and social security contributions are deducted from the monthly salary (‘deducted at source’) and paid to the respective bodies by the employer. Employees file a tax return each year to check whether they have paid too much or too little according to the applicable sliding scale. Persons liable to income tax fall into one of three different tax classes, depending on their family situation and the source of their household income (foreign or Luxembourgers). The second household income is taxed in accordance with a supplementary tax card and at a rate ranging from 15 % to 33 %.

  • Income tax: see 3.7
  • Social security contributions to be paid by the employer: at least 11.96% + contributions to the Mutualité des Employeurs (Employers’ Mutual Insurance Company) according to the risk category;
  • Social security contributions to be paid by the employee: 12.45%

Text last edited on: 05/2019

COST OF LIVING

According to data from Eurostat, the prices of consumer goods and services in Luxembourg are relatively high. In 2017, they stood at 127% of the average of the prevailing prices within the 28 Member States of the European Union (100 %).

Here are some examples of prices:

Sandwich: € 4

Newspaper: € 1.70

Cinema ticket: € 9.10

Coca-Cola in a bar: € 2.50

Coffee in a bar: € 3

White bread, sliced (500 g): € 2.60

A meal from the set menu in a local restaurant costs 11 euros. The final bill will depend on the drinks consumed.

Text last edited on: 05/2019

EDUCATION SYSTEM

Early education, which is optional, is for children aged three. It allows foreign children to become familiar with the Luxembourgish language and culture. This contact with the Luxembourgish language is important as it makes it easier for children in Luxembourg to go onto learn to read and write in German. Early education is not a replacement for a crèche or childcare facility and working parents must organise childcare for their children outside school hours. Most municipalities have a ‘maison relais’ (childcare centre) to look after children of school age outside school hours, and prices are reasonable, unlike at crèches, which tend to be very expensive.

Compulsory education in Luxembourg lasts 11 years, and is divided into:

  1. Pre-school education (‘Spillschoul’ or kindergarten) is compulsory for children who are already aged 4 on 1 September and lasts two years.
  2. Primary education (six years) is for children between the ages of six (at the start of term in September) and 12. Children are taught to read and write in German. They begin to learn French in the second year of primary school and then learn Luxembourgish grammar. Children are obliged to attend school for nine consecutive years from primary education onwards.

The laws governing the organisation of basic education, teaching staff in basic education and compulsory school attendance came into force at the start of term in September 2009. All pre-primary and primary schools, known as écoles fondamentales, are organised into four learning cycles. Cycle 1 covers early education (optional) and pre-school. Cycles 2, 3 and 4 correspond to primary schooling and last for two years each.

  1. Post-primary or secondary education (generally lasting 7 years) concerns pupils aged 12 to 17 or 18. The education provided is either general or technical in nature and leads to a secondary school-leaving examination.
  2. Secondary school offers general education which serves as preparation for higher education. It lasts seven years and is subdivided into a lower and an upper level (specialisation cycle).
  3. Technical education is divided into three cycles. Once a child has completed the lower cycle (year 9) he or she has completed obligatory schooling and can learn a trade. The middle cycle leads to a professional aptitude diploma (DAP) in year 12. The upper cycle includes, inter alia, a technical system that prepares students for university courses.

Distinguishing features of the Luxembourg education system: languages are a major benefit of receiving an education in Luxembourg. Classes are taught in German, French and Luxembourgish. Pupils also learn English during secondary education, and may take additional foreign-language classes (Italian, Spanish, Russian, etc.).

There are two European Schools in Luxembourg as well as a French high school (Lycée Vauban) and several international high schools.

The e-Bac offers adults the chance to study for the baccalaureate, completing most of their courses online: www.ebacsite.net/www.ebacsite.net/

The Ecole de la deuxième chance (Second Chance School, or E2C) seeks to address the issue of young people dropping out of school early and to help them obtain a qualification which allows them to reintegrate into society: www.e2c.lu www.e2c.lu

Higher education / university:

The University of Luxembourg was established in 2003 and currently has three faculties: the Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication, the Faculty of Law, Economics and Finance and the Faculty of Language and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education

There are other options for higher education:

The Institut Universitaire International (International University Institute) (www.iuil.luwww.iuil.lu) is a continuous training institute that develops continuous training courses and studies and tools linked to the development of skills in a broad sense. It does this in cooperation with academic and business partners in Luxembourg and abroad, such as the Sacred Heart University (www.shu.luwww.shu.lu), which offers MBA programmes.

The Lycée Technique des Arts et Métiers (Technical School for Arts and Crafts) (www.ltam.luwww.ltam.lu) offers a BTS (brevet de technicien supérieur – advanced vocational training certificate) in cinema and audiovisual media, animation, automation engineering, technical engineering, information technology and graphic design.

The Ecole de Commerce et de Gestion (School of Commerce and Management) ((http://www.ecg.lu/jma3/http://www.ecg.lu/jma3/) offers a BTS course for executive assistants, commercial and marketing managers, and accounting and tax managers.

RECOGNITION OF DIPLOMAS AND QUALIFICATIONS

The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers

The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in the decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in different Member States. Only such a system will ensure that a lack of recognition of professional qualifications will become an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.

Main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU

As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to freely practice their profession in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements for access to certain professions in the host country.

For the purpose of overcoming these differences, the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. Within the terms of this system, a distinction is made between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.

Steps towards a transparency of qualifications in Europe

The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:
- An increased co-operation in vocational education and training, with the intention to combine all instruments for transparency of certificates and diplomas, in one single, user-friendly tool. This includes, for example, the European CV or Europass Trainings.
- The development of concrete actions in the field of recognition and quality in vocational education and training.

Going beyond the differences in education and training systems throughout the EU

Education and training systems in the EU Member States still show substantial differences. The last enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.

In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has put forward a series of instruments, aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.

  1. The European Qualifications Framework

The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee a smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.

  1. The National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs)

A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.

  1. The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.

  1. Europass

Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It is composed of five standardised documents

  1. a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
  2. a language passport,
  3. certificate supplements,
  4. diploma supplements, and
  5. a Europass-Mobility document.

The Europass system makes skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe. In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national Europass centres have been established as the primary contact points for people seeking for information about the Europass system.

USEFUL LINKS

http://www.adem.public.lu/fr/ - National Employment Service

http://www.ccss.lu/ - Social Security

http://www.adem.public.lu/fr/mobilite-europeenne/Eures - EURES Luxembourg

www.impotsdirects.public.lu - Taxes

www.mae.lu - Ministry of Foreign Affairs

http://www.fes.lu - Union of Luxembourgish Temporary Agencies

 

Embassy of the Republic of Bulgaria in Belgium (Accredited also for Luxembourg)

Address: Avenue Мoscicki 7, 1180 Bruxelles

Royaume de Belgique

Telephone: +32 2 374 47 88; +32 2 374 08 66

Fax: +32 2 375 84 94

Emergency number, after 18:00h: + 32 473 981 042

Officehours: Mon to Fri, 9.00 - 17.30 h
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Consular Service

Address : Rue Copernic 4C, Bruxelles 1180,

Admission hours :  Mon - Fri, 10.00 - 13.00 h (by appointment)

For appointments: +32 2 375 86 50 (14:30 - 17:00 h

Fax: + 32 2 375 53 82

Emergency number, after 18:00 h : +32 473 981 042

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GENERAL INFORMATION

Area - 640,679 km2

Population – 67,022,000

Official Language – French

REGISTRATION AND RESIDENCE PERMITS

NATIONALS FROM THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AREA AND SWITZERLAND

If you are a citizen of one of the Member States of the European economic area or Swiss, you can freely move and stay in France for a period of 3 months.  You may be accompanied by close family members. You have the right to freely move and stay in France up to 3 months, regardless of the reason for your stay: tourism, placement, short-term employment, etc. This right may be limited.

If you wish to work in France as an employee or independently, you do not require a residence permit or a work permit.  Since 1st July 2015, this rule also applies if you are a Croatian worker.

THIRD COUNTRY NATIONALS

They must obtain information from their consulate or from the French consulate in the country where they live.

Third country nationals with a long-term resident status in another Member State are not entitled to access the French labour market. After three months, if they can prove that they have sufficient resources and health insurance, they can obtain a ‘visitor’s’ residence permit, which does not allow them to work but is a first step towards changing their status (towards obtaining an employee status, if need be).

See website: www.immigration.gouv.fr - www.service-public.fr - www.ofii.fr

Ministry of Europe and foreign affairs:http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr

LOOKING FOR A JOB

APPROACH THE FOLLOWING BODIES:

  1. PÔLE EMPLOI (French governmental employment agency)

All towns have a Pôle Emploi office which will help you in your search for a job. You can register at the office closest to where you live. For more information, call 0033177863949 or visit the website: www.pole-emploi.fr

  1. EURES (European employment services)

Eures advisers, who are attached to Pôle Emploi in a network dedicated to the international market, will guide you in your search on your arrival in France.

See website: www.eures.europa.eu

  1. APEC (Managerial Staff Employment Association) helps executives (positions of responsibility) and young graduates in their search for employment.
  2.  See website: www.apec.fr
  3. TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES charge the employer for their services, not the job seeker. See website: www.prisme.eu
  4. RECRUITMENT AGENCIES

These agencies are contracted by companies to manage the recruitment of certain highly skilled staff or those entrusted with positions of responsibility.

Examples of websites to visit: www.cadremploi.fr - www.cadresonline.com

CONSULT:

  1. COMPANY WEBSITES

Companies often have a ‘Recruitment’ area. Use a search engine or business directory to find their internet address. You can also search the following website: www.pagesjaunes.fr.

  1. WRITTEN PRESS

The specialised trade press enables companies to recruit staff by publishing their vacancies. You will find all titles and their links at: www.press-directory.com.

INCOMES AND TAXATION

PERSONAL INCOME TAX

In France, at-source tax deduction entered into force on 1st January 2019. At-source tax deduction aims to adapt tax collection in a given year to real situations (income, life events) to that given year, without changing the original rules of calculation. It aims to close the one-year gap between the moment when income is received and when the tax regarding this income must be paid.

You must pay taxes if you are older than 18 years old and if you live in France, i.e.:

  • you permanently live in France with your family,
  • your principal residence is in France,
  • your main professional activity is in France,
  • your main economic interests are in France.

On the basis of the components included in the 2017 tax return filed in 2018, the tax administration has calculated the applicable tax rate of 2019. As soon as the first part of the income of 2019 is received, this rate is applied to the salary: the at-source tax deduction is automatic.

The payslip clearly indicates the applicable tax rate and the amount of the at-source deducted tax, as well as the salary before and after the at-source tax deduction.

For more information, go to: www.impots.gouv.fr

CALCULATING YOUR TAX

Tax deducted at source is calculated on the basis of the net taxable remuneration multiplied by the applicable tax rate.

How is the net taxable remuneration calculated?

Net taxable remuneration = net remuneration (gross - social security contributions) + CSG/CRDS (social contributions) that are non-deductible (i.e. not taxable).

Therefore, the amount of the taxable income is slightly higher than the received income since it includes, including the net remuneration, the non-deductible CSG and CRDS (social contributions).

This rule to determining the taxable remuneration is not connected to the at-source tax deduction which does not change the amount and the calculation methods of income taxes. The amount of the taxable remuneration is set out in the payslip or on your online personal space if you are retired.

PAYING YOUR TAX

For employees, tax is deducted at source by the third party which provides your income (employer, individual employer, etc.) depending on a tax rate calculated and forwarded by the tax administration. The implementation of the tax deduction is automatic.

LOCAL TAXES

Anyone who has a private dwelling in France on 1st January of the tax year must pay a local taxes. Communes vote on tax rates which, therefore, vary from one commune to another.

Owners also have to pay a property tax.

VAT (Value Added Tax)

Four rates apply in France:

  • The ‘standard’ rate of 20% (which applies to all taxable transactions for which no other rate applies).
  • The reduced rate of 10% (which applies to certain products or goods listed by law, for example, certain food products and certain types of renovation work).
  • The special rate of 5.5% (which mainly applies to certain medicines, some theatrical performances and certain press publications).
  • The specific rate of 2.1 %. It applies to certain press publications, refundable medicines or even certain shows. It should be noted that a VAT rate of 2.1% applies to online press services since 01/02/2014.

Other special rates apply in Corsica and overseas departments and collectivities for specific transactions.

See website: http://www.economie.gouv.fr/

Text last edited on: 05/2019

COST OF LIVING

The cost of living will very much depend on the region in which you live. In France, the difference is particularly marked between the Paris region and the other regions (the provinces). Moreover, even in the same town, prices can sometimes vary greatly from one district to another.

ACCOMMODATION

As in many European countries, accommodation forms the main expense for most French households. In the Paris region, accommodation-related expenditure is on average 36% higher than in the other regions. Furthermore, the price of property in the city centre is generally far higher than on the outskirts.

For an idea of the cost of rent in the Paris region and in certain provincial cities, see the following section on this website: ‘4. Living conditions 4.5 Accommodation’.

FOOD AND DAILY EXPENSES

The structure of the retail network in France is comparable to that in other European countries: there are either small retailers in town centres offering a wide variety of products and brands at fairly high prices, or well-developed retail chains (most selling goods online) located on the outskirts, which offer lower prices for mass-market products.

Here is a list of retail store names which you may find useful:

EXAMPLES OF PRICES

  • bread (one French baguette):  EUR 1
  • one metro/bus ticket: EUR 1.90
  • cinema ticket: EUR 10
  • standard rate postage stamp: EUR 0.80
  • a sandwich: EUR 5
  • a meal in a restaurant: EUR 15 to 20

Text last edited on: 05/2019

EDUCATION SYSTEM

THE BROAD PRINCIPLES

In France, education is compulsory from 3 to 16 years of age. There are state-run schools (secular and free of charge), private schools under contract to the State (which must adhere to the Ministry’s official guidelines and curricula) and other private schools who are not under contract. 

ORGANISATION OF EDUCATION

  1. PRIMARY EDUCATION

Primary school encompasses nursery schools and elementary schools.

  • Nursery school is for children aged 3 to 6 (children who are 2½ years old are accepted under certain conditions). On 13 February 2019, the French National Assembly voted to lower the age of compulsory education from 6 to 3 years of age.
  • Elementary school is for all children, both French and foreign, between the ages of 6 and 11. It covers five years:  CP (first year), CE1-CE2 (second and third years) and CM1-CM2 (fourth and fifth year).
  1. SECONDARY EDUCATION
  • Lower secondary school (‘collège’) is for children aged 11 to 15 and covers the first three years. In principle, all children receive the same education. The ‘Diplôme National du Brevet’ is awarded at the end of lower secondary school.
  • Upper secondary school (‘lycée’) is for teenagers from 15 to 18 years of age. It comprises three years called: Seconde, Première and Terminale (respectively the first, second, and third and final years of upper secondary school). Upper secondary schools offer a wide variety of subjects. There are two types of school: those offering a general and technological education, ending with the Baccalauréat, and those vocational schools ending with the CAP (certificate of vocational proficiency), the BEP (vocational training certificate) or the ‘Baccalauréat professionnel’ (vocational Baccalauréat).

The Baccalauréat is a qualification which marks the completion of secondary education and gives access to higher education.

  1. HIGHER EDUCATION
  • Two-year courses: the DUT (Technological university diploma), awarded by IUTs (University institutes of technology), and the BTS (higher vocational training certificate).
  • Universities receive the majority of higher education students (approximately 1.5 million students, 10% of whom are foreign students). Admissions are conditioned upon the Baccalauréat or the foreign qualification, which give access to university studies in the country of origin. Universities offer a wide choice of subjects in 3 years (Bachelor’s Degree), 4 years (Master’s Degree 1), 5 years (Master’s Degree 2) or 8 years (Doctorate).
  • The ‘Grandes Écoles’ (competitive-entrance higher education establishments), such as the ENA (École Nationale d’Administration), the École Polytechnique and the HEC (Hautes Études Commerciales). Candidates work hard for two years in ‘Classes Préparatoires’ [preparatory classes] in order to sit national entrance examinations for these prestigious colleges.

See website: www.education.gouv.fr - www.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr

RECOGNITION OF DIPLOMAS AND QUALIFICATIONS

The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers

The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in the decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in different Member States. Only such a system will ensure that a lack of recognition of professional qualifications will become an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.

Main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU

As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to freely practice their profession in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements for access to certain professions in the host country.

For the purpose of overcoming these differences, the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. Within the terms of this system, a distinction is made between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.

Steps towards a transparency of qualifications in Europe

The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:
- An increased co-operation in vocational education and training, with the intention to combine all instruments for transparency of certificates and diplomas, in one single, user-friendly tool. This includes, for example, the European CV or Europass Trainings.
- The development of concrete actions in the field of recognition and quality in vocational education and training.

Going beyond the differences in education and training systems throughout the EU

Education and training systems in the EU Member States still show substantial differences. The last enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.

In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has put forward a series of instruments, aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.

  • The European Qualifications Framework

The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee a smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.

  • The National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs)

A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.

  • The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.

  • Europass

Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It is composed of five standardised documents

  1. a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
  2. a language passport,
  3. certificate supplements,
  4. diploma supplements, and
  5. a Europass-Mobility document.

The Europass system makes skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe. In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national Europass centres have been established as the primary contact points for people seeking for information about the Europass system.

USEFUL LINKS

http://www.travail-solidarite.gouv.fr/ - Ministry of Labour, Employment and Health
http://www.pole-emploi.fr - Public Employment Service
http://www.economie.gouv.fr/ - Ministry of Economy, Industry and Employment
http://www.education.gouv.fr/ - Ministry of the national Education
 
Embassy of Bulgaria in France and Principality of Monacco
Address: Ambassade de Bulgarie, 1 avenue Rapp, 75007 Paris
Tel.: +33 1 45 51 85 90
Fax: +33 1 45 56 97 50
Emergency telephone: +33 1 45 51 85 90
Working hours: Mo – Fr, 09:00 – 17.30
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Embassy of France in Bulgaria
Address: 1504 Sofia, 27-29 Oborishte Str.
Tel: +359 2 965 11 00
Fax: +359 2 965 11 20
Consular Service
Address:  1504 Sofia, 21-A Oborishte Str.
Tel: +359 2 965 11 00
Fax: +359 2 965 11 71
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