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Новини

GENERAL INFORMATION

Area - 41,285  km2

Population – 8,570,146

Official Language – German, French, Italian, Romansh

REGISTRATION AND RESIDENCE PERMITS

Since 1 June 2016, the nationals of all EU-27/EFTA states, i.e. the nationals of EU-25/EFTA (EU17/EFTA plus EU-8) and the nationals of Bulgaria and Romania (EU-2), have been subject to the same conditions.

The Federal Council activated the safeguard clause in respect of Bulgarian and Romanian nationals with effect from 1 June 2017. As part of this safeguard clause, the quota system for category B EU/EFTA residence permits was reintroduced for 1 year. This measure applies to nationals from the EU-2 who possess an employment contract in Switzerland that is valid for more than 1 year (or has unlimited duration) or who establish themselves in Switzerland as self-employed persons. On 18 April 2018, the Federal Council decided to extend the safeguard clause to 31 May 2019.

Since 1 January 2017, Croatian nationals have also benefited from free movement. However, they are subject to transitional provisions.

You will find the documents relevant to your stay, according to nationality, at the following link: https://www.sem.admin.ch/sem/it/home/themen/fza_schweiz-eu-efta/eu-efta_buerger_schweiz.html 

LOOKING FOR A JOB

If you are seeking employment before moving to Switzerland, we recommend that you consult the EURES advisers in your own country. If you are already in Switzerland, you can register free of charge with your local Regional Placement Office (RAV/ORP/URC).

Most vacancies in Switzerland are advertised on the internet. Various websites offer targeted job-seeking by area of activity (e.g. building, catering, healthcare services, information technology, etc.). Another option is to register with a private employment agency.
The services provided by these agencies are normally free of charge for jobseekers; if you are given a contract of employment, your employer will be asked to cover the cost of the service.

In Switzerland, vacancies are very often advertised in special supplements in the main daily newspapers too. The best known supplements are: Emploi&Formation, published by Le Temps in Geneva, Emploi, published by 24Heures in Lausanne, Stellefant, published by the Basler Zeitung, Stellenmarkt, published in Bund and in the Berner Zeitung, Stellen-Anzeiger and NZZ Executive, which appear in the Neue Zürcher Zeitung, and Alpha, which can be found in the Zurich-based Tages-Anzeiger and SonntagsZeitung and in the Corriere del Ticino.

INCOMES AND TAXATION

Incomes vary depending on the industry, level of training and canton. The social security deductions include contributions to the old-age and survivors’ insurance schemes, invalidity, unemployment and loss-of-earnings insurance schemes, and to occupational benefit schemes, etc. They do not however include compulsory health-insurance contributions as these are not income-dependent but vary according to the insurance company, place of residence and selected cover.

In Switzerland, income tax is levied both by the Confederation (direct federal tax) and by the cantons and municipalities (cantonal and local taxes). Since each of the 26 Swiss cantons has its own tax legislation, tax rates vary between cantons. As a rule, taxpayers must file an annual tax return.
The relevant tax factors (income and assets) and the amount of tax payable are determined on the basis of this return. Apart from income tax, which is normally deducted at source for EU and EFTA nationals, another major tax is value-added tax (VAT), which is currently (2018) charged at 7.7% and is applied to most goods and services. Other taxes levied in Switzerland include property tax, vehicle tax, the annual motorway sticker (vignette) charge and others.

COST OF LIVING

The cost of living in Switzerland is among the highest in the world.

According to the Federal Statistical Office (FSO), the average disposable income for private households in Switzerland was CHF 7 124 per month in 2016.

The main household expenses include insurance, such as health insurance (6.2%), and the contributions for old-age pension (AVS) and to the pension fund (9.7%). Other major expense items are housing and utilities (14.7%), taxes (11.5%), food and drink (6.3%), restaurants (5.8%), and leisure and cultural activities (5.4%).

In 2016, after deducting all these expenses, private households had on average CHF 1 551 left at the end of every month, or 15.5% of their gross household income. Households in the lowest income bracket, with a gross monthly income of less than CHF 5 000, were left on average with no income for savings.

Source: Federal Statistical Office

Text last edited on: 05/2019

EDUCATION SYSTEM

The characteristic feature of the Swiss education system is its diversity, each of the 26 cantons being responsible for all aspects of education in its territory. Lessons are taught in German, French, Italian or Romansh, depending on the language region. Language learning has traditionally been considered very important in Switzerland. During compulsory schooling, all pupils usually study two foreign languages, namely a second national language and English.

Compulsory schooling lasts for 11 years and includes a primary and a secondary cycle (secondary level I) in all cantons. Attendance is compulsory and free of charge for all children, whether Swiss or foreign. The municipalities seek to ensure that all children can attend a state school in their own locality or in the nearest town or village. The schools’ directorate of each municipality, or the municipal administration if there is no schools’ directorate, can provide information on general schooling matters, such as admissions, regulations and transport. The majority of students in Switzerland complete their compulsory education at a state school in the municipality in which they live. Roughly 5% of students attend a private school.

Post-compulsory education comprises the upper secondary level and the tertiary level.

Upper secondary level: after completing their compulsory schooling, roughly two-thirds of adolescents in Switzerland move on to vocational education and training (dual-track system). This provides them with a vocational certificate and may also lead to a vocational baccalaureate. Around one-third of adolescents opt to continue their education at an upper secondary specialised school or a baccalaureate school, which prepares them for tertiary education at a university.

Tertiary level: the tertiary level comprises universities (including universities of applied sciences and teacher training universities) and, as an important alternative, institutions providing professional education and training. The latter target people with professional experience, enabling them to gain specialist education and additional qualifications.

RECOGNITION OF DIPLOMAS AND QUALIFICATIONS

The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers

The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in the decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in different Member States. Only such a system will ensure that a lack of recognition of professional qualifications will become an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.

Main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU

As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to freely practice their profession in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements for access to certain professions in the host country.

For the purpose of overcoming these differences, the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. Within the terms of this system, a distinction is made between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.

Steps towards a transparency of qualifications in Europe

The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:
- An increased co-operation in vocational education and training, with the intention to combine all instruments for transparency of certificates and diplomas, in one single, user-friendly tool. This includes, for example, the European CV or Europass Trainings.
- The development of concrete actions in the field of recognition and quality in vocational education and training.

Going beyond the differences in education and training systems throughout the EU

Education and training systems in the EU Member States still show substantial differences. The last enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.

In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has put forward a series of instruments, aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.

  1. The European Qualifications Framework

The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee a smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.

  1. The National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs)

A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.

  1. The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.

  1. Europass

Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It is composed of five standardised documents

  1. a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
  2. a language passport,
  3. certificate supplements,
  4. diploma supplements, and
  5. a Europass-Mobility document.

The Europass system makes skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe. In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national Europass centres have been established as the primary contact points for people seeking for information about the Europass system.

USEFUL LINKS

http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/de/home.html - Ministry of Foreign Affairs
http://www.ejpd.admin.ch/ejpd/de/home.html - Ministry of Justice and Police
http://www.educa.ch/dyn/14.asp - Education System of Switzerland
http://www.bbt.admin.ch – State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation SERI
www.bsv.admin.ch – Federal Social Insurance Office FSIO
https://www.arbeit.swiss – Work in Switzerland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL INFORMATION

Area - 42 925,46 km2

Population – 5,789,957

Official Language – Danish. Recognised regional languages - Faroese, Greenlandic, German

REGISTRATION AND RESIDENCE PERMITS

It is your citizenship that decides whether you can travel to Denmark to work, or whether you need a residence and working permit before you arrive.

In this respect, there is a distinction between citizens of Nordic countries, citizens of EU/EEA and citizens from third countries. In addition, special rules apply for cross-border workers and workers posted by foreign companies.

If you are a citizen of an EU/EEA country or Switzerland, you have the right to live and work in Denmark, without having to apply for a residence permit.

When you arrive in Denmark, however, you must address a number of practical issues concerning your stay in Denmark if it is to last more than three months.

Among other things, you are required to obtain a certificate of registration. A certificate of registration is the documentation substantiating your right to stay in Denmark. In addition to this, you are to ensure that the Danish authorities are properly notified about where you live and about your tax situation.

You can obtain your certificate of registration by appearing in person at the Danish Agency for International Recruitment and Integration.

Alternativly, you can turn to International Citizen Service in Copenhagen, Aalborg, Aarhus or Odense. Here, all government agencies are gathered under one roof. It is therefore, as a rule, only necessary for you, and anyone accompanying you, to look here to get a handle on the paperwork and answers to your questions.

More information about the rules for residence and work can be found here.

You can obtain more information about the certificate of registration at newtodenmark.dk.

LOOKING FOR A JOB

The Danish job centres

If you are in Denmark and looking for work, you can, without registering and free of charge, receive assistance and an overview of local job opportunities at the local job centre.

There are 94 job centres nationwide. Thus, there is a job centre in nearly all of the country’s 98 municipalities. However, certain municipalities cooperate with other municipalities and therefore do not have their own job centre.

The job centres provide assistance that facilitates your personal job search, which means that they can give you advice and guidance, as well as help you use the facilities they provide for your job search.

The website jobnet.dk (in Danish only) is the Danish job centres’ online service for jobseekers and employers throughout the country. Here you can register your CV, assign a job agent and look for open positions in the extensive job database.

Find your local job centre here or find more information on looking for a job in Denmark at www.workindenmark.dk

Workindenmark

Workindenmark is a public employment service for Danish companies and international candidates, comprised of three service centres and the portal www.workindenmark.dk. Workindenmark is a supplement to the recruiting efforts already taking place at the country’s job centres.

The Workindenmark centres in Copenhagen, Odense and Aarhus offer goal-oriented recruitment services for industries and companies in which there is a need for highly qualified candidates.

Workindenmark offers recruitment services to job seekers and all types of companies that turn to the centres with a request to work in Denmark or to recruit international candidates.

The portal www.workindenmark.dk offers the following services:

  1. A job bank, which you can use to search through a large number of English-language job vacancies in Denmark, as well as establish a job agent who notifies you in case of relevant job opportunities.
  2. A CV bank, where, as an international job seeker, you can register your profile and make yourself visible to Danish employers.
  3. Information in English regarding working conditions, taxes, salary, medical coverage, registration documents, residence and work permits, life in Denmark, etc.

 

INCOME AND TAXATION

People who work or have lived in Denmark for more than six months must pay tax in Denmark.

Like the other Scandinavian countries, Denmark has a high tax burden, but it stems from Denmark’s particularly extensive welfare system, among other things.

The taxes you pay contribute to financing schools, daycare facilities, nursing homes, free education, free medical assistance, hospitals and similar things, which in other countries are paid through insurance funds.

All taxpayers in Denmark receive a personal deduction, which is a minimum amount of income from which tax is not drawn. Furthermore, as a salaried employee, you have the right to an ‘in-work’ tax deduction, on which tax is not to be paid. In 2019 it will comprise 10.10 per cent.  Applicable tariffs and rates can be viewed at skat.dk.

Taxes may vary depending on how much you earn and which municipality you live in. However, there is a ceiling for the maximum amount of tax you must pay, which in 2018 will be 52.05 per cent of your personal income.

In addition, one pays a labour market contribution of eight per cent of work income in the form of wages and profits from self-employment.

Social contributions are included in the national income tax and are not required as a separate fee.

In Denmark there is a 25 per cent VAT (Value Added Tax) on goods and most services.

If you own your own home in Denmark, you will have to pay property tax (land tax) and property value tax. Property tax is a tax on the land itself and is paid to the municipality where your house is situated. The tax is calculated based on the property’s value. The individual municipality determines the actual rate and collects the tax. If you have any questions about property tax, you should contact Borgerservice (Citizen’s Services) in the municipality where your home is situated. Property valuation tax is a tax on the property’s value, determined by public property valuation. The property value tax equates to one per cent of the property value up to DKK 3,040,000, and 3 percent of the remainder if the value exceeds that.

There is a special tax system for researchers and key employees recruited abroad. Based on a number of conditions, these groups have the possibility, over a period of a maximum of 84 months, to pay a gross tax of 32.84 per cent of their salary (salary, other cash payments received, value of company car, company telephone and health insurances) without any deductions, instead of applying the general income tax. These 84 months can be divided into several periods.

Salary in Denmark depends on which agreement one is included in, or whether one has an individual agreement.

In 2017, the average Dane had, over a 14-year period, an annual gross income of DKK 320 040. After payment of tax, interest costs and maintenance obligations, the average Dane had a disposable income of DKK 229 875. (Source: Statistics Denmark)

To receive a salary in Denmark, you as a taxpayer must register with the authorities and obtain a tax card. You can read much more about tax and fees, and register as a taxpayer at SKAT’s website.

When you leave Denmark, you are to ensure that you notify SKAT so that you can be de-registered as a taxpayer and so that SKAT can settle any outstanding balances. You can find relevant forms and guidance at SKAT’s website.

COST OF LIVING

In Denmark, prices for a home, food, transport and entertainment are relatively high compared to other countries. In 2016, the total price level was approximately 41 per cent higher than the EU average. In particular, housing costs stand for a large portion of a family’s expenses. Particularly in larger cities, the price of housing can be quite high.

At the same time, wages are also relatively high and the Danish welfare system results in many services being free; for example, medical assistance and education.

A typical Danish family (two adults and two children) has expenses divided along the following lines:

Expense

Per cent

Food, food products and tobacco*

15.0

Clothing and footwear

5.1

Housing, electricity and heating**

27.7

   

Transport and communications

14.8

Leisure, culture and entertainment

13.7

Other consumption***

23,

* Including alcoholic beverages

** Including rent; consumption of water, electricity, heating and gas; furniture; general equipment for the home; and repairs..

*** Including expenses for education, child care, restaurants and hotels, provision of various services, insurances, etc.

Source: Statistics Denmark, Denmark in Figures 2017 (Danmark i tal 2017)

Last updated: May 2019

EDUCATION SYSTEM

Nearly all education in Denmark is free and paid for by the state.

International workers are expected to have completed equivalent degrees which provide access to equivalent courses of study in their home countries.

All Danish education, from primary school to PhD level, fall within the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). This means that it is easy to compare educational levels across EU borders. You can read more about EQF here.

Childcare and school-aged children

Since it is normal in Denmark for both parents to work, there is a large selection of public daycare options at low prices. The public care options are run by the municipalities, and include, among other things, nurseries, daycare centres or municipal daycare services. Contact your municipality regarding relevant local services for children.

Primary school (EQF 1+2)

Children living in Denmark have the right to receive education in a ten-year basic schooling system.

There is a ten-year basic compulsory education for all children living in Denmark, applicable from late-August in the calendar year that children turn six.

Approximately 75 per cent of all Danish children attend the Danish folkeskole, which offers free education. The folkeskole is the public primary school, consisting of obligatory children’s groups and one to nine classes, as well as a voluntary tenth class. Folkeskole is not compulsory in Denmark, and for that reason you can freely choose whether your child will attend folkeskole, a private school or receive home-schooling.

Efterskole (independent residential schools) (EQF 1+2)

Folkeskole graduation classes, namely eighth, ninth or tenth class, can also be completed at an efterskole, which is a residential school open to all young people between the ages of 14 and 18, with a focus on  philosophy of life, public education, and democratic citizenship. Children can choose as there is a varied selection of subjects including sports, music, art, etc.

Secondary education (EQF 4)

A secondary education can begin immediately after ninth or tenth grades and has the objective of preparing the child for further education, e.g., at a university.

There are four different types of educations that grant access to further education: STX (general student degree) (3 years), HF (higher education preparatory degree) (2 years), HHX (commercial student degree) (3 years), HTX (technical degree) (3 years).

The language of instruction in secondary education is, as a rule, Danish. However, there are also secondary educations in English, French and German, for example the IB programme (International Baccalaureate®).

Vocational training (EQF 3+4+5)

Vocational training may begin immediately after ninth or tenth grade, and is a practically oriented education consisting of school periods at an educational institution and an internship in a proper work environment.
Vocational training covers both the traditional skilled-craft domain and a number of other sectors including, e.g. business, service, agriculture and technology.

Professional academy educations (EQF 5)

Professional academy education is a brief higher education (normally two years) with a professional orientation towards providing qualification.

The educations follow specific fields and companies in which technology, healthcare, economy, etc. are found and combine internships with the schooling programme.

Professional bachelor (EQF 6)

A professional bachelor’s education is a professionally oriented, qualified, medium-long higher education. The education combines theory and practice, and is often aimed at a specific field or profession, for example educators, teachers, healthcare professionals and the like. A professional bachelor’s education takes three to four years, including any internships.

University educations (EQF 6+7)

Bachelor’s and master’s degrees are research-based, higher educations offered by universities, business schools and similar institutions. These educations are offered within the main areas of expertise of natural science, medical science, technical science, humanities, theology and social sciences.
Bachelor's education takes three years. Master’s education is a structure on top of this, and typically takes two years.

RECOGNITION OF DIPLOMAS AND QUALIFICATIONS

 The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers

The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in the decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in different Member States. Only such a system will ensure that a lack of recognition of professional qualifications will become an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.

Main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU

As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to freely practice their profession in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements for access to certain professions in the host country.

For the purpose of overcoming these differences, the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. Within the terms of this system, a distinction is made between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.

Steps towards a transparency of qualifications in Europe

The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:
- An increased co-operation in vocational education and training, with the intention to combine all instruments for transparency of certificates and diplomas, in one single, user-friendly tool. This includes, for example, the European CV or Europass Trainings.
- The development of concrete actions in the field of recognition and quality in vocational education and training.

Going beyond the differences in education and training systems throughout the EU

Education and training systems in the EU Member States still show substantial differences. The last enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.

In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has put forward a series of instruments, aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.

  • The European Qualifications Framework

The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee a smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.

  • The National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs)

A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.

  • The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.

  • Europass

Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It is composed of five standardised documents

  1. a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
  2. a language passport,
  3. certificate supplements,
  4. diploma supplements, and
  5. a Europass-Mobility document.

The Europass system makes skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe. In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national Europass centres have been.

USEFUL LINKS

www.eures.dk - EURES Denmark

www.workindenmark.dk - Official Page of the Centres WORKINDENMARK and a Portal for International Admission of Staff

www.atp.dk - Portal for Pension Security

www.skat.dk - Social Security Service

www.boligportal.dk - Information about Rents in Denmark

http://ufm.dk/recognition - Recognition of Diplomas and Qualifications in Denmark

www.uvm.dk - Ministry of Education

www.nyidanmark.dk - Officila Website for Immigrants

 

 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL INFORMATION

Area - 450,295 km2

Population – 10,302,984 9 (2019)

Official Language – Swedish

REGISTRATION AND RESIDENCE PERMITS

EU/EEA citizens who are workers, business owners or students or have sufficient funds to support themselves have the right to reside in Sweden. Students and persons with sufficient funds must also have comprehensive health insurance. The right of residence does not have to be established by means of an investigation, but arises automatically where EU/EEA citizens satisfy one of the above requirements under the Law on aliens (utlänningslagen).

The term ‘right of residence’ under national law covers the right of EU/EEA citizens and their family members to reside in Sweden for more than three months without a residence permit.

Nordic citizens are free to settle in Sweden. They do not need a residence permit.

People who are citizens from outside the EU/EEA must have a residence permit to stay in Sweden for more than 3 months.However, if the person has a right of residence as a family member of an EU/EEA citizen, the person does not need a residence permit.

If you are an EU/EEA citizen and you remain in Sweden for six months or more and are in work, you must submit an application to the Swedish Tax Agency in respect of income tax deducted at source. The Swedish Tax Agency allocates a coordination number in connection with your being registered for tax.

If you intend to stay and work in Sweden for at least one year, you may apply to the Swedish Tax Agency (Skatteverket) for registration in the Population Register. If the application is granted, you will be given a personal ID number. Your personal ID number/coordination number will be needed in many different contexts in your contact with various authorities.

More information on the right of residence in Sweden can be found on the Swedish Tax Agency’s website, see "Legal guidance" and on the Migration Board’s website.There is more information on coordination numbers and social security numbers on the Swedish Tax Agency’s website.

Text last edited on: 06/2019

LOOKING FOR A JOB

People looking for work in Sweden are expected to be proactive to a considerable extent. This is most commonly done by looking for job adverts on the Internet.

There are many different websites and apps that publish job adverts. The Swedish Public Employment Service’s job bank ‘Platsbanken’ is one example. Vacancies throughout the country and in other countries are advertised there. It is possible to search by location and by profession. More often than not employers’ details are given, so it is possible to contact them directly. The advertisements are usually in Swedish, which means that most employers assume that those of you who apply have some knowledge of Swedish.You do not need to be registered as a job seeker to look for vacancies in Platsbanken. Vacant positions in Platsbanken are also copied across to the EURES portal.

General information and support can be provided by Customer Services at the Swedish Public Employment Service by telephone: +46 (0)771 416 416.

Another tip is to look for jobs on recruitment sites such as Monster, Blocket, Metro, Jobbsafari, etc.

Making your CV visible to employers is another way of looking for work. By logging into arbetsformedlingen.se and other recruitment sites, many employers who are looking for new employees can search for you. The EURES portal also offers the option of displaying your CV by using the Europass CV template and thus allowing employers across Europe to search for you.

Another route towards a job is to contact private staffing and recruitment companies, such as those that specialise in the industry or profession in which you are looking for a job. Some of these companies can be found via the Kompetensföretagen (Competence Agencies of Sweden)’s website.

It is a good idea to use social media such as Facebook and LinkedIn when looking for work.

Many jobs are never advertised externally. Taking the initiative to contact an employer for whom you would like to work is common and is usually seen in a positive light. Lists of companies in various sectors can be found in databases such as ‘Företagsfakta’ (company facts).

Newspapers and local newspapers contain many job listings. These adverts can also be accessed via the internet.

INCOME AND TAXATION

The average salary for all occupations in 2017 was SEK 33,700/month.Wages are generally higher in the private sector compared to the public sector.

Women earn on average 89% of what men earn, i.e. there is a difference in earnings of 11%. Part of this difference is due to women and men working in different occupations, working in different parts of the labour market or having different qualifications and working hours.

The Swedish tax system consists of a number of direct and indirect taxes and charges. The most important direct taxes are state- and municipal income tax. The most important indirect taxes are VAT and excise duties on certain products, such as alcohol and tobacco. Almost all goods and services are subject to VAT, and the rate of VAT is normally 25% of the price.

VAT on food is 12%.

Income below SEK 19,760 (2019) per year is non-taxable.

The majority of the income tax paid by natural persons goes to the municipalities. If your taxable income exceeds SEK 490 700/year (2019), you pay national income tax at 20% on the amount in excess of this. You pay national income tax at 25% on income that exceeds SEK 689,300 (2019) per year.

The municipal income tax is proportional, and is between 29% and 34%.The vast majority pay only municipal taxes, which include county council tax. Social insurance contributions are paid by the employer via employers’ contributions. There are therefore no additional deductions from wages.

Income tax is also paid on unemployment benefits, sick pay, pensions and similar sources of income.

Both natural and legal persons are obliged to file an income tax return with ‘Skatteverket’ each year, usually around 2 May.

Your income minus basic deductions and deductions for various costs makes up your taxable income.

If you live abroad and stay in Sweden for less than 6 months, you must pay a special income tax, called SINK, which is 25%.SINK is a definitive withholding tax on employment income, and you therefore do not need to submit income tax returns for such income. Contact ‘Skatteverket’ (Swedish Tax Agency) for more details.

There is more information on taxes in Sweden at www.skatteverket.se

Text last edited on: 06/2019

COST OF LIVING

The cost of living for a person living alone, excluding housing costs, is around SEK 10,210 per month in 2019, according to calculations made by Swedbank. These costs relate to necessary basic consumption of food, clothing, hygiene, healthcare, sports, cars, leisure activities, local travel, insurance, electricity, telephone, etc. They do not include costs of holidays, spectacles or of new purchases such as curtains, computers or televisions. The corresponding costs for a couple are SEK 15,908 per month.

Text last edited on: 06/2019

EDUCATION SYSTEM

Swedish schooling consists of ten years’ compulsory primary schooling, which starts at the age of 6 with the preschool class. This is followed by an optional three years at upper secondary school. Most pupils from primary and lower secondary school carry on to upper secondary school. There are university-preparation programmes and vocational programmes.

Compulsory primary and lower secondary schools and upper secondary schools are usually operated by municipalities, but are subject to national curricula and government supervision. There are also a number of independent schools that are also funded from the public purse.

International schools

There are a number of international schools that offer tuition in languages other than Swedish. . International schools are run in accordance with the curriculum of another country or an international curriculum. There are also schools that teach through the medium of English but follow the Swedish curriculum. For more information, please contact ‘Skolverket’ (the Swedish National Agency for Education).

Higher education

Applicants to university or college are normally required to have completed upper secondary school education in Sweden or abroad. Certain prior knowledge in one or more subject areas is almost always required.

Most universities in Sweden are operated by the State. There are universities and colleges in more than twenty locations around the country. It costs nothing for EU/EEA citizens and citizens of Switzerland to study at Swedish universities and colleges, apart from a small registration fee.You have to borrow or buy course books yourself. Many students receive state student grants and take out state student loans in order to support themselves during their studies. This student financial support is administered by the Swedish Board for Study Support (CSN).

Adult education

Adult education is arranged by Sweden’s municipalities. Through adult education you can study Swedish for immigrants (SFI), courses equivalent to lower secondary and upper secondary school, study for upper secondary examinations, and complete qualifications that entitle you to further study. It is also possible to undertake vocational training.The teaching is free of charge, but a fee for teaching materials may be payable.

‘Folkhögskolor’ (folk high schools)

A specifically Scandinavian form of adult education is the ‘folkhögskola’ (folk high school), which is often run as a boarding school. The schools are owned by county councils or by non-profit organisations such as trade unions, churches and temperance societies. They set their own curricula and can offer a wide range of theoretical courses, artistic subjects, international affairs and environmental protection.

RECOGNITION OF DIPLOMAS AND QUALIFICATIONS

The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers

The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in the decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in different Member States. Only such a system will ensure that a lack of recognition of professional qualifications will become an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.

Main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU

As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to freely practice their profession in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements for access to certain professions in the host country.

For the purpose of overcoming these differences, the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. Within the terms of this system, a distinction is made between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.

Steps towards a transparency of qualifications in Europe

The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:

  • An increased co-operation in vocational education and training, with the intention to combine all instruments for transparency of certificates and diplomas, in one single, user-friendly tool. This includes, for example, the European CV or Europass Trainings.
  • The development of concrete actions in the field of recognition and quality in vocational education and training.

Going beyond the differences in education and training systems throughout the EU

Education and training systems in the EU Member States still show substantial differences. The last enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.

In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has put forward a series of instruments, aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.

  1. The European Qualifications Framework

The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee a smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.

  1. The National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs)

A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.

  1. The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.

  1. Europass

Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It is composed of five standardised documents

  • a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
  • a language passport,
  • certificate supplements,
  • diploma supplements, and
  • a Europass-Mobility document.

The Europass system makes skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe. In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national Europass centres have been established as the primary contact points for people seeking for information about the Europass system.

USEFUL LINKS

http://www.sweden.gov.se - Government of Sweden

http://www.arbetsformedlingen.se - Employment Service

http://www.skatteverket.se - Taxation

http://www.forsakringskassan.se - Social Security

http://english.uk-ambetet.se/, http://www.skolverket.se/ - Education

http://www.uhr.se/ - Swedish Council for Higher Education (Recognition of Qualifications)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL INFORMATION

Area - 78,866 km2

Population – 10,649,800

Official Language – Czech

REGISTRATION AND RESIDENCE PERMITS

If you are a citizen of an EU/EEA Member State or Switzerland and come to the Czech Republic, you have to follow the following procedures:

Registering for residence

If your stay in the territory of the Czech Republic will be more than 30 days, you must report it to the Aliens Police in the place where you are staying within 30 days of your entry into the country.

Residence permits

If you wish to stay longer than 3 months, you must apply for a residence permit at a regional office of the Ministry of the Interior (Department for Asylum and Migration Policy).

For this purpose, you will need the following documents:

  • valid passport or another valid travel document (identity cards for EU citizens are acceptable)
  • proof of health insurance (it is not required if the purpose of residence is employment, entrepreneurship or another gainful activity)
  • document proving the purpose of your stay, if it is employment, entrepreneurship or another gainful activity, or study
  • proof of having accommodation in the Czech Republic
  • 1 photograph

Under EU regulations, the purposes of stay are as follows:

  • work
  • study
  • economic activity
  • family membership

Even if you do not need a residence permit (because you wish to stay for less than 3 months) we recommend registering with the Aliens Police. Registration may be required by some institutions, particularly banks and tax authorities.

LOOKING FOR A JOB

The EURES portal allows you not only to search for jobs imported from databases of the Czech Republic Labour Office, but also to open a My EURES account. You can also visit the Czech EURES portal on the website of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, where clicking on the different countries on the map will reveal where there are vacancies; there is also a link entitled ‘Hledáte práci v EU/EHP’ [Looking for work in the EU/EEA].

You may also visit one of the EURES advisors who can be found at the Czech Republic Labour Offices.

Czech Republic Labour Office

The Czech Republic Labour Office offers you several opportunities to improve your position in the search for new employment. The basic possibility is to browse (staff can help you with this if you wish) a database of vacancies. In addition, the Czech Republic Labour Office offers, for instance, advice on choosing a profession or retraining opportunities.

Private employment agencies

When looking for a job through an agency you should check whether the agency holds the relevant employment agency licence. You will find a list of all the licensed agencies on the portal of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. Most of these agencies have websites, where you can find out more about them. Employment agencies are not authorised to charge for their services.

Mass media and the internet

Web portals constitute a major source of job vacancies. Not only you can search for offers posted directly by employers or agencies, but you can often also upload your CV into the database so that it can be viewed by employers searching for workers. In most Czech national newspapers, there is a section that focuses on job vacancies. Social networks are another possible tool that can be used to search for job vacancies.

Direct contact

In certain situations, it is better to contact an employer directly, particularly if you are applying for seasonal or casual work in rural areas. Of course, you can also address other employers directly, either through their websites or their human resources departments. The overwhelming majority of employers require a knowledge of Czech.

INCOMES AND TAXATION

In the fourth quarter of 2018, nominal gross monthly earnings (taking into account the number of people working in the national economy) were CZK 33 840. (Source: Czech Statistical Office, https://www.czso.cz/csu/czso/cri/prumerne-mzdy-4-ctvrtleti-2018).

Sector:

Average gross monthly earnings

 (in CZK)*:

Construction

28 053

Mining and quarrying

35 908

Education

31 939

Financial and insurance activities

54 640

Accommodation and food service activities

18 699

Administrative and support service activities

20 966

Arts, entertainment and recreation

28 113

* Average gross monthly earnings taking into account the number of people in work

Source: https://www.czso.cz/csu/czso/cri/prumerne-mzdy-4-ctvrtleti-2018

Income tax

If you are liable to pay tax in the Czech Republic (e.g. on the basis of an employment contract with a Czech employer), you may, under legally stipulated circumstances, claim non-taxable amounts.

Your employer will pay a tax advance on your behalf every month. The monthly rate is 1/12 of the above amounts. As an employee, you may apply for an annual tax calculation at the beginning of the following year, or submit a tax return for the preceding year to your local tax office. Any overpaid tax will be refunded to you.

Income tax is calculated on the basis of the super-gross salary (= gross salary of the employee + social and health insurance contributions paid by the employer). The unified tax rate for 2019 is set at 15% for all natural persons.

Contributions for health and social insurance from gross pay

The employee pays

  • 4.5% for health insurance
  • 6.5% for social security of his/her gross salary.

The employer pays 9% and 25% of the amount of gross salaries for health insurance and social security respectively for all its employees.

Value added tax

The basic rate for 2019 is 21%, but some goods and services are subject to reduced rates of 15% (e.g. food, accommodation services) and 10% (applicable only to goods listed in the relevant annex to the VAT Act. These include, for example, infant formulas and children's foods, radio-pharmaceuticals, vaccines, medicines and certain other medical devices, books and sheet music, and foodstuffs for the manufacture of gluten-free foods).

Excise duty

Excise duty applies to propellants, fuels, spirits, beer, cigarettes and wine and is payable by the importer or manufacturer. Small quantities of these goods may be imported for personal consumption – see section 2.1. Movement of goods and capital.

Other taxes that may be payable under specific circumstances include road tax, real estate transfer tax, real estate tax and environmental taxes.

Text last edited on: 07/2019

COST OF LIVING

The Czechs spend the dominant part (about one fourth) of their income on food, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages and tobacco. Another important item is housing costs, which are comparable with the rest of the EU and represent about 18% of overall expenditure. Approximately 16% of income is spent on culture and leisure time. Substantial sums (14% of income) are also spent on transport and telecommunications.

Prices of the most common goods and services:

Bread: CZK 30

Milk (1 l): CZK 15

Eggs (10pcs): CZK 35

Bottled mineral water (1.5 l): CZK 15

Sugar (1 kg): CZK 10

Potatoes (1 kg): CZK 15

Tomatoes (1 kg): CZK 35

Frozen chicken (1 kg): CZK 100

Big Mac: CZK 75

Pizza Margherita (at a restaurant): CZK 130

Steak (at a restaurant): CZK 300

Refuse bags: CZK 20

Microwave oven: CZK 1000

Ladies’ sweater: CZK 300 - 1000

Socks: CZK 50

Electricity (in average household): CZK 2000

Petrol (unleaded 95): CZK 33

Bank account - free of charge or charged: CZK 100

The exchange rate with the euro is CZK 25 to CZK 26.

Text last edited on: 07/2019

EDUCATION SYSTEM

The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MŠMT) is the central state administration authority responsible for preschool facilities, primary and secondary schools and universities.

The education system in the Czech Republic has a long tradition dating back to 1774, when compulsory schooling was introduced. Today, the Czech Republic has all types of education, beginning with preschool, through to primary, secondary, university, postgraduate and continuous education.

Preschool facilities

Kindergartens are part of the school system and are designed for children from 3 to 6 years of age. At most kindergartens schooling is free. Parents contribute to the running costs. There is a huge range of both publicly run and private kindergartens in the Czech Republic. Preschool education is compulsory for a child of up to five years by the beginning of the school year. This obligation was introduced in the school year 2017/2018.

Primary schools

Compulsory education lasts for 9 years, normally from the age of 6 to 15. In most cases it is provided by primary schools. Even though there are defined catchment areas, there is no restriction on the choice of school.

Primary school has nine grades, divided into the lower level with the first five years and the higher level with four years. The school year begins on 1 September and ends on 31 August of the following year. Pupils are assessed on the basis of written and oral examinations and given marks ranging from 1 to 5. Continuous assessment is summarised in the report issued at the end of each six-month period. Lessons last 45 minutes. Children may complete their compulsory schooling in a eight-year or six-year study programme at a grammar school. 

Disabled children can be integrated into regular classes or taught in special primary school classes. They can also attend special schools.

Secondary schools

Grammar schools provide complete general secondary education. They prepare students for post-secondary education. They have four-year, six-year and eight-year programmes. At the end of their studies students take a school-leaving examination.

Secondary vocational schools provide complete vocational secondary education, studies last for 4 or 5 years and at the end of their studies students take a vocational examination.

Secondary technical schools usually offer three-year apprenticeship courses, which end with a school leaving examination and the award of a certificate of apprenticeship. They prepare students for skilled worker occupations.

Conservatoires provide specific secondary education and prepare students for teaching and artistic professions. Study programmes last for six to eight years. At the end of their studies students take a school-leaving examination or prepare a graduation performance.

Higher technical colleges

These provide necessary technical education and practical preparation necessary for technical jobs. There are two-year and three-year programmes. At the end of their studies students take a theoretical or practical leaving examination.

Universities

Universities provide Bachelor’s degree (undergraduate) programmes, Master’s programmes (graduate) and postgraduate studies. Programmes in technical and economic fields lead to an ‘engineering’ (‘Ing’) degree.

Public post-secondary institutions are divided to universities and ‘vysoké školy‘ (literally: ‘high schools’).

Universities, which represent the predominant form of public higher education, also have to engage in research, scientific and development activities, as well as teaching.

Studies conducted in Czech at public and state-owned universities are free of charge.

In addition to the public universities, there are also private universities in the Czech Republic. Like departments at public universities, accreditation from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports is required for the establishment of a private university.

Continuing adult education

Adult education and professional training is provided by schools, employers and private educational institutions, and through retraining programmes organised by labour offices.

RECOGNITION OF DIPLOMAS AND QUALIFICATIONS

The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers

The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in the decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in different Member States. Only such a system will ensure that a lack of recognition of professional qualifications will become an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.

Main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU

As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to freely practice their profession in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements for access to certain professions in the host country.

For the purpose of overcoming these differences, the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. Within the terms of this system, a distinction is made between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.

Steps towards a transparency of qualifications in Europe

The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:

  • An increased co-operation in vocational education and training, with the intention to combine all instruments for transparency of certificates and diplomas, in one single, user-friendly tool. This includes, for example, the European CV or Europass Trainings.
  • The development of concrete actions in the field of recognition and quality in vocational education and training.

Going beyond the differences in education and training systems throughout the EU

Education and training systems in the EU Member States still show substantial differences. The last enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.

In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has put forward a series of instruments, aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.

  1. The European Qualifications Framework

The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee a smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.

  1. The National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs)

A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.

  1. The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.

  1. Europass

Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It is composed of five standardised documents

  • a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
  • a language passport,
  • certificate supplements,
  • diploma supplements, and
  • a Europass-Mobility document.

The Europass system makes skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe. In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national Europass centres have been established as the primary contact points for people seeking for information about the Europass system.

USEFUL LINKS

http://www.domavcr.cz - Practical information about Czech Republic

http://www.mvcr.cz/policie/cizinecka.html - Police

http://portal.mpsv.cz/eures - EURES national webiste in Czech Republic

http://portal.mpsv.cz/sz/obcane/zpr_prace - Check of the documents of agencies, www.jobs.cz, www.prace.cz - looking for a job

http://www.cssz.cz - Social Security, www.cmu.cz - Centre for international payments

http://portal.gov.cz - Portal of the Public Administration, http://business.center.cz/business/finance/dane - Taxes

http://www.mfcr.cz - Ministry of Finance

http://www.czech.cz - Official Website of the Czech Republic

http://byty.hyperinzerce.cz, http://reality.avizo.cz - Real Estate Agencies

http://www.msmt.cz - Ministry of Education

http://www.nuov.cz - National Institute for Vocational Training

http://www.uiv.cz - Institute for Information in the Field of Education

http://www.edu.cz - School Education Portal

http://www.suip.cz/bulgarian-documents - Brochure in Bulgarian about Labour Law

https://portal.mpsv.cz/eures/kontakt - List with EURES advisers in Czech Republic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL INFORMATION

Area - 56,594 km2

Population – 4,076,246

Official Language – Croatian

REGISTRATION AND RESIDENCE PERMITS

A citizen of a member state of EEA and Switzerland may stay in the Republic of Croatia for three months provided they have a valid travel document or identity card. In the event of a stay longer than three months, it is necessary to register a temporary stay to the police administration or station according to the place of residence, which immediately issues a certificate on the registration of temporary residence. When registering residence, the person shall be issued a personal identification number (OIB). OIB may also be issued before residence is registered. In that case, a person may request an OIB directly through the relevant Tax Administration office: http://www.porezna-uprava.hr/en/Pages/PIN.aspx.

The right to permanent residence may be exercised after five years of uninterrupted legal stay in the Republic of Croatia.

Temporary residence is approved to third country citizens who intend to reside or reside in the Republic of Croatia for one of the following purposes:

  • family reunification,
  • concluding a life partnership,
  • high school education and studying,
  • research,
  • humanitarian reasons,
  • work,
  • working as a deployed worker,
  • for other purposes.

Applications for temporary residence permits are submitted to the diplomatic mission of the Republic of Croatia when abroad, or to the local police station/authorities in the intended place of residence or work of the non-national, or in the employer's location.

A highly qualified worker from a third country shall submit an application for a residence permit and a work permit to the diplomatic mission of the Republic of Croatia when abroad, or to the local police station/authorities in the place of work/residence. The residence and work permit (“the EU Blue Card”) is issued for a validity period of 2 years only.

LOOKING FOR A JOB

Employers advertise vacant jobs on the website of the Croatian Employment Service, on private portals for job seekers and on private websites. You can also find job advertisements on notice boards, in daily newspapers, professional journals and gazettes, as well as on the websites of professional organisations (chambers, associations). Public sector jobs are always published in the Official Gazette (Narodne novine). In smaller towns, announcements are also made on radio.

Many large employers use online application forms on their own websites to create a database of potential candidates for future job openings. In addition to job advertisements, small private employers use private channels and recommendations to reach the best candidates.

Private agencies for occasional and temporary employment have databases of candidates that can be accessed. Workers sign an employment contract with the agency, which provides workers for employers who have a temporary need for additional workers.

INCOMES AND TAXATION

The applicable tax system of the Republic of Croatia provides for state taxes: income tax,

value added tax, special taxes and excise duties (special motor vehicle tax, coffee and non-alcoholic beverages tax, automotive liability insurance premiums and no-fault vehicle insurance premiums, excise tax system for alcohol, alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, energy and electricity). There are also different types of county, city or municipal, joint (income tax), and gambling taxes.

The general VAT rate in Croatia is 25 %, while for certain products and services lower rates (13 % and 5 %) apply.

Income tax is paid at a rate of 24 % or 36 % on the tax base, depending on the amount of income. There are also contributions for pension insurance (20 %), health insurance (16.5 %) and surtax from 0 to 18 % (depending on the place of residence). Workers have obligatory insurance in case of unemployment and injury at work, paid from the State Budget.

Example of calculation: http://www.rrif.hr/kalkulator_placa.html

Information on tax exemptions and advantages is available on http://ccenterclient.porezna-uprava.hr/.

The average monthly salary in Croatia for October 2018 was HRK 8 462 (net HRK 6 267). Above-average salaries are paid in sectors of air transport, crude oil and natural gas extraction, basic pharmaceutical products and preparations, production of refined petroleum products and financial services.

The lowest salaries were earned in clothing manufacturing, building management and maintenance services, landscaping and conservation, protective and exploration activities, other personal service activities, and the production of leather and related products.

COST OF LIVING

Within the structure of household expenditures in Croatia, food and drink expenditures (excluding alcoholic beverages) account for a third of total expenditure, and with housing costs (15.7 %), they amount to more than half the total living costs. Next are traffic costs (9 %) and clothing and footwear (6 %).

Gasoline: about HRK 9.50 per L (varies depending on the price on the world market)

Electricity: HRK 0.77 per kWh on average

Food prices vary depending on the seasonal offer, the place of purchase (market, supermarket or smaller shops) and special sales. There is a significant difference in prices in different environments. Clothing stores have seasonal discounts from 20 to 70 %; products and services portals may be bought for up to 90 % lower prices on group buying portals. Shopping malls work seven days a week, most often from 9 am to 9 pm, while other stores work from Monday to Saturday, less frequently also on Sundays.

Average food prices

Bread (loaf, approx. 700 g): HRK 7-12 

Milk (litre): HRK 5-8 

Eggs (10): HRK 13-20 

Potato (kilogram): HRK 2-10 

Apples (kilogram): HRK 7-15 

Pizza in a pizzeria: HRK 30-60 

Hamburger: HRK 20-40

Text last edited on: 04/2019

EDUCATION SYSTEM

Preschool education and care for children are a part of the educational system of the Republic of Croatia and are intended for children aged between six months until the time they start primary school. 791 kindergartens (1 008 kindergarten facilities) operate in Croatia, of which 342 are private (223 founded by natural persons, 53 by religious organisations, and 65 by associations).

Primary education lasts for eight years; it begins by enrolment in the first grade of primary school, it is compulsory for all children and usually lasts between the ages of six and fifteen. This applies to all children residing in the Republic of Croatia regardless of their citizenship. The Republic of Croatia has 860 primary schools.

Secondary school education allows everyone to gain knowledge and continue their education after primary education under the same conditions and according to their abilities. Programmes for acquiring secondary general, secondary and lower vocational education provide knowledge and skills for work and continuation of education. Training and specialisation programmes complement the acquired knowledge, qualifications and skills for working in a profession. Secondary school education usually covers the ages from the completion of primary school to reaching adulthood (between 13-15 and 17-19 years).

Depending on the type of curriculum and the programme they provide, secondary schools are called: grammar schools (general or specialised); vocational schools (technical, industrial, craft and other, determined by type of the curriculum), art schools (music, dance, art and other, determined by the type of curriculum). Secondary school education of adults includes special programmes for obtaining secondary or vocational qualifications, lower vocational qualifications, re-training programmes and training and specialisation programmes.

398 high school institutions operate in Croatia.

Higher education activities are performed by tertiary institutions. Tertiary institutions are universities and faculties and art academies they comprise, universities of applied science and colleges of higher education.

University study programmes prepare students for performing activities in science and higher education, in the business world, in the public sector and in society in general. University study programmes have three levels: undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate studies.

Universities of applied science and colleges of higher education are established for the purpose of performing activities of higher education through organisation and performance of professional studies and may carry out professional, scientific and artistic activities in accordance with the Scientific Activity and Higher Education Act and their by-laws.

Professional study programmes provide students with an appropriate level of knowledge and skills that enable them to work in professional occupations and for direct employment. Professional study programmes cover two levels: professional study programme and specialist graduate professional study programme.

There are 119 tertiary institutions in the Republic of Croatia, of which 28 are privately owned.

RECOGNITION OF DIPLOMAS AND QUALIFICATIONS

The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers

The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in the decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in different Member States. Only such a system will ensure that a lack of recognition of professional qualifications will become an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.

Main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU

As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to freely practice their profession in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements for access to certain professions in the host country.

For the purpose of overcoming these differences, the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. Within the terms of this system, a distinction is made between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.

Steps towards a transparency of qualifications in Europe

The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:
- An increased co-operation in vocational education and training, with the intention to combine all instruments for transparency of certificates and diplomas, in one single, user-friendly tool. This includes, for example, the European CV or Europass Trainings.
- The development of concrete actions in the field of recognition and quality in vocational education and training.

Going beyond the differences in education and training systems throughout the EU

Education and training systems in the EU Member States still show substantial differences. The last enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.

In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has put forward a series of instruments, aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.

  1. The European Qualifications Framework

The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee a smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.

  1. The National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs)

A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.

  1. The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.

  1. Europass

Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It is composed of five standardised documents

  1. a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
  2. a language passport,
  3. certificate supplements,
  4. diploma supplements, and
  5. a Europass-Mobility document.

The Europass system makes skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe. In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national Europass centres have been established as the primary contact points for people seeking for information about the Europass system.

USEFUL LINKS

Transport prices in Zagreb: http://www.zet.hr/
Transport taxes in Split: http://www.promet-split.hr/
Transport taxes in Osijek: http://www.gpp-osijek.com/
Transport taxes in Rjieka: http://www.autotrolej.hr/
 
www.vlada.gov.hr  - Government of Croatia                                            
www.hzz.hr - Public Employment Service                            
www.mrms.hr - Ministry of Labour and Pension System
www.mspm.hr – Ministry of Social Polisy and Youth
www.porezna-uprava.hr - Taxes                                                  
www.mzos.hr - Education                                             
- Recognition of Qualifications 
 
Embassy of Republic of Bulgaria in Croatia
Address: Ul. Nike Grškovića 31, 10 000 Zagreb, Hrvatska  
Tel.: +385 1 46 46 609; +385 1 46 46 631; 385 1 46 46 640
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GENERAL INFORMATION

Area - 505,990 km2

Population – 46,733,038

Official Language – Spanish

REGISTRATION AND RESIDENCE PERMITS

As a citizen of the EU, EEA or Switzerland, you only need to show your valid identity card or passport to enter Spain. You are entitled to remain in the country for three months to find a job or set up as self-employed. If you have still not found a job after three months, you are entitled to stay for longer provided you continue seeking employment.

If your family members are not citizens of the European Union, the EEA or Switzerland, they must apply for a residence card for relatives of EU citizens if they plan to stay in the country with you for more than three months.

Necessary documents

After you arrive in Spain you have a period of three months in which to apply at the Oficina de Extranjeros [Foreign Nationals’ Office] or at a police station for registration in the Registro Central de Extranjeros [Central Register of Foreign Nationals]. You will need to present your valid passport or identity card and pay a fee.  The Office will give you a registration certificate with an NIE (Número de Identificación de Extranjeros) [foreign resident identification number]. This procedure has replaced the former Community resident card system.

For identification purposes, any non-national wishing to pursue any economic, professional or social interests in Spain must have a personal, unique and exclusive NIE [foreign resident identification number]. This number is provided automatically when a person registers at the Foreign Nationals Register, but it may also be applied for separately.  

Persons who are not from Switzerland or an EEA member country require a residence permit to live in Spain. For further information please contact the Spanish embassy in your country of origin or go to the portal of the Secretariat-General for Immigration and Emigration of the Ministry of Employment and Social Security.

Registration in your local area

This formality for proving your residence in Spain is done at the local Ayuntamiento [city/town council]. For this you will need to show the rental contract for your accommodation or your electricity or water bill, etc. as proof of address.

If this is the first time you are working in Spain, you must obtain your own Social Security number. You can arrange this yourself or your employer can do it on your behalf. To do this you must go to the Social Security office with the following documents:

  • application form (TA-1)
  • ID card

You will then be given a Tarjeta de la Seguridad Social [Social Security Card], which you must show at your local health centre so that you can be assigned a doctor and be issued a tarjeta sanitaria [health card].

LOOKING FOR A JOB

A good CV, accompanied by a cover letter, is a very important tool when it comes to applying for a job in a company in your sector (speculative application), or responding to a job advertisement. After the publication of a job offer, the first contact between a business and a candidate is the cover letter and CV. The CV is a document which contains the necessary personal and professional information of the candidate, highlighting all the positive and valuable aspects of his/her experience. The purpose of the CV is to obtain a personal interview. Statistics show that 75 % of candidates are rejected on the basis of their CV before the interview phase. The CV has therefore become an advertising tool for job seekers and, as such, is a very important document which must be prepared carefully.

APPLICATION

While some companies provide an application form, it is common practice to send a CV and a cover letter, whether in reply to a vacancy notice or as an unsolicited application. 

This is not simply a formality; this is how you present yourself to the company and make a first impression. Unless otherwise indicated, both the letter and CV must be drafted in Spanish on a computer and in A4 format. The letter should be concise and use formal language; avoid using standard letters designed for any type of job offer. Both documents must be directly related to the job opening advertised. 

Cover letter

Drafting a letter in response to an advertisement: 

Read the advertisement or job offer carefully. 

Analyse the company’s needs. What kind of professional are they looking for? 

Tailor your letter accordingly: highlight those aspects of your CV which you think will arouse interest based on the needs of the company that has placed the job offer.

Drafting a letter to be sent on your own initiative (speculative application):

This is for when you send your CV to a business on your own initiative in the hope that it will be taken into account when a vacancy opens up or a new post is created. 

Try to obtain as much information as possible about the company and its needs. 

Find a reason to show why you are interested in working for them. 

Select those aspects of your CV that you think will be of particular interest to the company.

Layout: 

Upper left: sender’s name, surname, address and telephone number. Below, also on the left, the name of the company and the person to whom it is addressed. Lastly, include the place and date of the letter, together with the job reference. 

Salutation: You can use expressions such as ‘Estimado Sr./Sra.’ [Dear Sir/Madam], although it is better to send the letter directly to the person in charge of recruitment. 

Body of the letter: You should explain why you are applying for the job, highlighting the aspects of your CV that make you particularly suitable for that position. It should not simply be a repetition of the information contained in your CV.

Closing: use formal expressions such as: ‘En espera de sus noticias, le saluda atentamente’ [Yours faithfully]. 

Sign the letter and write your name and surname under the signature.

Curriculum Vitae

There is no single template for a CV. For your CV to be effective, adapt it to each job offer, bearing in mind your training and professional career and the details of the specific opening. You may change the order of the sections or paragraphs if this makes the CV more effective. For example, you may put experience before training when you believe that, for a certain job, your experience is more important than your studies.  4 Basic TEMPLATES 

  • Ascending chronological order: if you have little experience, order the dates chronologically, thereby showing positive development. 
  • Descending chronological order: if you have a lot of experience, or if you want to find work similar to that in which you have recently been involved, order the dates from the most recent to the earliest. 
  • Functional: sort the data on the CV according to the professional field if you have worked in two or more sectors which appear to be different or that are not clearly linked to one another. 
  • European: particularly appropriate if you wish to apply for a job in the European Union.

TIPS. Your CV must be done on a computer and be well laid-out, clear and concise. It is best to limit it to two DIN A4 pages. It is not compulsory to attach a photograph, although this may be useful for some jobs. Photocopies of qualifications and certificates are not normally attached (unless expressly requested) as these are usually brought to the interview. Direct language should be used. It is best to keep sentences simple and avoid using acronyms and abbreviations.

In the Spanish business world, companies often only contact candidates who have passed the recruitment or selection stage.

Layout:

  • Personal details: name, nationality, full address, telephone number (including international dialling code), email address, etc. 
  • Training: include both academic achievements and additional training. Knowledge of foreign languages and IT skills are normally included in a separate paragraph. Regarding academic achievements, focus particularly on qualification(s) relating to the job you are applying for, mentioning the awarding body, place of study and date you obtained your qualification. 
  • Experience: this may be listed in chronological or reverse chronological order, or by professional fields. Provide the name of the company, job title, dates and the tasks performed. 
  • Other information: this section is optional and adaptable. It is used to provide any information which may prove relevant to the job, for example whether you have a driving licence, are willing to travel, etc. References are not normally included, although the expression ‘References provided upon request’ may be used.

Template CVs and advice on how to draft your CV are available on most public employment websites in Spain.

The Europass CV is an alternative to conventional CV templates, particularly when you are seeking a job in another European country. It allows candidates to submit their personal details, skills and qualifications in a standard European format and is available in 22 European languages.

SELECTION PROCESSES

In Spain, selection processes are typically based on interviews and occasionally involve psychometric and/or job-related tests.

In view of the importance of this interview, it is advisable to prepare yourself properly by finding out what the company does and thinking about your abilities, attitudes and the contribution you could make to the company if they were to employ you. The interview may be with just one interviewer or various interviewers at the same time, depending on the company and the position.

PSYCHOMETRIC TESTS. At this point in the selection process, you should realise that the company needs to analyse the individual differences between the various candidates for a job. A test is simply a way of gathering information about a person and psychometric tests are standard instruments that measure abilities, capacities, personality traits, interests, professional values, etc. Seventy-five percent of companies in Spain use psychometric tests in their selection processes. There are two types: aptitude tests and personality tests.

JOB-RELATED TESTS. Job-related tests are used to assess one’s knowledge of a specific profession. These may take the form of exams, technical questionnaires, simulation exercises, etc.

GROUP DYNAMICS. An increasing number of companies are including group exercises in their selection processes. In these role-play exercises, several candidates hold a meeting which is observed by the technical staff in charge of the selection process to assess how each participant behaves at the meeting. They sometimes simulate professional situations and other times dilemmas or even moral issues are raised.

ASSESSMENT CENTRE. The assessment centre is a selection methodology which is being used increasingly by companies. It lasts for one to two days and is used to assess candidates’ skills in a variety of situations that simulate what it would be like to work at that company. It assesses motivation, the ability to work under pressure, verbal and written communication skills, leadership, team work, skills of persuasion, analysis and interpretation of data, etc.

INCOME AND TAXATION

Every worker receives a periodic remuneration in the form of a salary, normally paid monthly.

The employer is empowered to deduct tax and social security contributions that are legally due on workers’ monthly salary. Below are examples of gross and net pay, i.e. before and after the corresponding deductions have been made. 

The following amounts are average wages calculated for a worker under age 65 working a 40-hour week and without taking into account non-standard payments, bonuses or other additional payments. Social security deductions are 6.3 % and in this case the income tax withheld is 10 %. The amount of income tax withheld depends on the worker’s family situation and the duration and type of the work contract.

It is 25 % for workers who are not tax residents, except for farm workers for whom the deduction is 2 %. 

Occupation

Monthly gross pay

Social Security

Income Tax

Monthly net pay

Waiting staff

EUR 953

EUR 60.51

EUR 95.30

EUR 797.19

Tele-operator

EUR 886

EUR 56.26

EUR 88.60

EUR 741.14

Industrial engineer

EUR 2 130

EUR 139.08

EUR 213

EUR 1 777.92

Computer expert

EUR 1 216

EUR 77.26

EUR 121

EUR 1 017.74

Administrative worker

EUR 936

EUR 59.43

EUR 93.60

EUR 782.97

National minimum wage (SMI)

EUR 707.70  735.90

     

1. DIRECT TAXES 

A. Personal Income Tax [Impuesto sobre la Renta de las Personas Físicas – IRPF]: charged on all income obtained from work, professional or business activities, investments and wealth. 

The amount of this tax is determined by the income level reached during the financial year, which coincides with the calendar year, and it is a progressive tax (the higher the income, the higher the percentage of tax, starting from a minimum that is exempt). The obligation to file a tax return starts from EUR 22 000 per year from a single income source (employer).

Income tax returns are filed in May and June of the year following the tax year in question and fines are imposed for failure to file or late filing. 

As a general rule, if you live in Spain for 183 or more days during a given tax year, you will have to declare all your income there, regardless of where you earned it. In determining one's ‘tax residence’, however, other considerations may be taken into account, such as close personal and economic ties, residence of family members, the place where most of the work is performed, etc. You are therefore advised to seek further advice if you are unsure.

If you have worked in Spain for fewer than 183 days and are then going to move to another EEA country, you can request a rebate of a proportion of the deductions made from your salary. To do so, you need to submit form 215 to the Tax Agency, a certificate of residency from the country to which you are moving and a certificate of the deductions made. The deadline for applying for a rebate is four years. 

B. Corporate tax: this is very similar to personal income tax (IRPF) but it applies to legal persons. The current tax rate is 30 % for large businesses and 25 % for smaller businesses (SMEs), but there are also other special rates. 

C. Inheritance and gift tax: levied on goods and services inherited or on gifts made inter vivos.

2. INDIRECT TAXES: 

A. Value added tax (VAT): levied on the supply of goods and services by employers and professionals and on imports. The tax rates are 4 %, 10 % and 21 % depending on the type of goods, and without prejudice to statutory exemptions. 

Property transfer tax and stamp duty: levied on particular transactions and legal and commercial documents, such as the purchase of real estate and taking out mortgages. 

There are also other EXCISE DUTIES, levied on the consumption of particular goods such as alcohol, tobacco and fuel. 

In addition to these national taxes or taxes devolved totally or partially to the Autonomous Communities, other LOCAL TAXES are levied by municipalities, such as property tax and vehicle road tax.

Text last edited on: 01/2020

COST OF LIVING

n general, the cost of living in Spain is acceptable and there is universal, free access to social services such as health and education. 

To give you an idea of the general cost of living in Spain, we have selected the following prices of the some everyday items, which will naturally vary from shop to shop, from region to region and from city to city:

  • Loaf of bread: EUR 0.95 
  • Milk (one litre): between EUR 0.70 and EUR 1.30 
  • A dozen eggs: between EUR 1.60 and EUR 2.20 
  • Kilo of apples: EUR 1.80
  • Kilo of tomatoes: EUR 2.50 
  • Bottle of shampoo: EUR 3.00
  • Deodorant: EUR 2.00 
  • Skirt or trousers: EUR 60.00 
  • National or regional newspaper: EUR 1.20 (EUR 2.20 on Sundays) 
  • Aspirin: EUR 3.20 
  • Cinema ticket: between EUR 7.00 and EUR 9.00 
  • Coffee: between EUR 1.10 and EUR 1.30
  • Beer: between EUR 1.50 and EUR 2.00 
  • Burger: EUR 2.95 
  • Set lunch menu: from EUR 9.00

Bus/metro transport cost: Single ticket: from EUR 1.50. A 10-trip ticket for metro and bus costs EUR 12.20 in Madrid. You can buy a pass that allows you unrestricted travel for one month on the metro, city buses and commuter trains (RENFE), starting at EUR 52.20 (Madrid). 

Approximate fuel costs: Unleaded 95 petrol (litre): EUR 1.35 – Unleaded 98 petrol (litre): EUR 1.46 – Diesel A (litre): EUR 1.27, very variable depending on international fuel prices.

EDUCATION SYSTEM

The education system in Spain is divided into the following levels: Pre-school, primary, compulsory secondary education, bachillerato [baccalaureate], vocational training and university education. 

Pre-school: age 0 to 6, divided into two 3-year stages. This is voluntary, with the second stage from 3 to 6 years being widely taken up. 

Primary education from age 6 to 12 is compulsory and free of charge in public (state) and state-subsidised private schools. 

Compulsory secondary education (Spanish acronym ESO): age 12 to 16. Taught in secondary schools. Pupils who successfully complete ESO leave school with a secondary education qualification. 

After obtaining the compulsory secondary education qualification, students who want to continue their studies may choose between mid-level vocational training or baccalaureate. 

The baccalaureate lasts two years, normally from age 16 to 18, and upon completion successful students are awarded a baccalaureate qualification. With this qualification, students may enter higher-level vocational training or commence university studies provided they have passed the university admission exam. 

A broad range of mid- or higher-level vocational training courses are available, organised on a modular basis and of variable duration, which prepare students to work in a variety of jobs. There are alternative ways, generally via exams, to gain admission to university education or higher level vocational courses. Successful completion of mid-level vocational training entitles students to the qualification of technician while higher-level vocational training entitles them to the qualification of advanced technician. 

University studies are divided into three cycles, traditionally known as Bachelor, Master and Doctoral. These correspond to the current three levels of university qualifications: Bachelor, Master and Doctorate (as in the European Higher Education Area). 

Universities are independent bodies able to design their own educational courses. They may be public or private. The qualifications awarded by private universities must be officially recognised by the Ministry of Education to be considered valid. 

Special training courses are also available, e.g. artistic courses (music, dance, visual arts and design and dramatic art) and foreign languages.

In some Autonomous Communities, such as Galicia, Catalonia or the Basque Country, education may be given in the language of the Autonomous Community.

RECOGNITION OF QUALIFICATIONS

The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers

The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in the decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in different Member States. Only such a system will ensure that a lack of recognition of professional qualifications will become an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.

Main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU

As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to freely practice their profession in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements for access to certain professions in the host country.

For the purpose of overcoming these differences, the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. Within the terms of this system, a distinction is made between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.

Steps towards a transparency of qualifications in Europe

The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:

  • An increased co-operation in vocational education and training, with the intention to combine all instruments for transparency of certificates and diplomas, in one single, user-friendly tool. This includes, for example, the European CV or Europass Trainings.
  • The development of concrete actions in the field of recognition and quality in vocational education and training.

Going beyond the differences in education and training systems throughout the EU

Education and training systems in the EU Member States still show substantial differences. The last enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.

In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has put forward a series of instruments, aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.

  1. The European Qualifications Framework

The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee a smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.

  1. The National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs)

A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.

  1. The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.

  1. Europass

Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It is composed of five standardised documents

  • a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
  • a language passport,
  • certificate supplements,
  • diploma supplements, and
  • a Europass-Mobility document.

The Europass system makes skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe. In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national Europass centres have been established as the primary contact points for people seeking for information about the Europass system.

USEFUL LINKS

www.mtin.es - Ministry of Labour

https://www.sepe.es - Public Employment Service

https://www.mineco.gob.es - Ministry of Economy and Finance

www.aeat.es - Taxes Agency

www.msc.es - Ministry of Health

www.mec.es - Ministry of Education

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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