header eures

Новини

GENERAL INFORMATION

Area - 9,251 km2

Population – 1,189,265 (2018)

Official Language – Greek, Turkish

REGISTRATION AND RESIDENCE PERMITS

  1. Ιn order for European citizens to enter and remain in the Republic of Cyprus for a period of less than 3 months they must hold a valid identity card or passport.

          Family members of a citizen of an EU Member State who are not EU Member State nationals and who accompany the citizen or arrive in the Republic of    Cyprus to meet the citizen must hold a valid passport and consular authentication of the passport (save where the said person holds a residence permit or permanent resident permit).

  1. In order to stay in Cyprus for more than 3 months the following are required:

§ A valid identity card or passport

§ Paid or unpaid unemployment (self-employment) in Cyprus, or

§ Registration in a private or public institution for the purpose of pursuing studies, including vocational training courses, or

§ Full sickness insurance cover for yourself and all the members of your family and sufficient financial resources for yourself and all the members of your family so that you are not dependent on the social welfare system of Cyprus.

  1. EU Member State citizens and members of their family who are also citizens of EU Member States shall be obliged to register with the Census Records and Migration Department within four months of arrival.
  2. The members of a family of an EU Member State citizen who accompany the citizen or arrive in Cyprus to meet that citizen must submit an application for a ‘residence permit’ for the member of a family of an EU Member State citizen, within four months of their arrival in Cyprus.

 

LOOKING FOR A JOB

The best way to find work before moving to Cyprus is through the EURES portal. Of course, the great increase in the number of unemployed persons in Cyprus over recent years has made it much harder to find work from a distance.

If you are in Cyprus looking for work you can visit the district labour offices, which are attached to the Department of Labour of the Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance, in order to register, get information and guidance and even placement in a job. You will need to show your passport or identity card on the first visit. You cannot register as being unemployed if you are not a resident of Cyprus. To register as unemployed in search of work you can visit the district labour offices: Nicosia +357 22 403000, Limassol +357 25 827320, Larnaca +357 24 805312 and Paphos +357 26 821666 or the local labour offices in Chrysochus +357 26 821842, Ypsonas +357 25 826900, Lakatameia +357 22 443717, Aglantzia +357 22 874800, Famagusta +357 23 812052, Aradippou +357 24 813295, Agros +257 25 874074, Kakopetria, Aghios Georgios Road, Latsia +357 22 815848 and East Limassol +357 25814923.

Cyprus has many private employment agencies. Some of them focus on finding jobs for workers from abroad. Some allow interested persons to register and submit their CVs on a dedicated webpage.

You can also contact the Cyprus Human Resource Management Association for information about employment agencies, and also the Cyprus Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KEBE). Newspapers, which you can find by visiting the official website of the Republic of Cyprus, offer another good way of finding work. The Public Employment Service of the Department of Labour has an Internet system of registration for employment and for job searching through the EURES website. The website of EURES Cyprus has been upgraded and updated. It can now be found on www.eures.gov.cy

Lastly, making a personal approach to companies which may be on the lookout for personnel with particular specialisations can also be worthwhile.

INCOME AND TAXATION

Resident taxpayers in Cyprus are taxed on all income acquired or derived from sources in Cyprus and abroad. A resident taxpayer is a person who lives in Cyprus for a total of more than 183 days in the tax year.

The tax rates for natural persons are:

Taxable income 

Tax coefficient

0 - €19 500

0

€19 501 - 28 000

20%

€28 001 - 36 300

25%

Over 36 301

30%

The calculation of taxable income takes account of deductible and discounted items such as subscriptions to trade unions and professional associations, donations to approved charities, Social Insurance Fund contributions, Pension Fund contributions, Relief Fund contributions and life insurance premiums, etc.

Spouses are taxed separately on the basis of separate annual income tax returns.

The income of a resident of the Republic from a pension in respect of services provided outside the Republic is subject to a tax rate of 5%, with exemption for the first €3417 in each year. You are advised to contact the Inland Revenue Department (+357 22 601919) for the necessary details concerning your own case (the email address of the Inland Revenue Department is: Този имейл адрес е защитен от спам ботове. Трябва да имате пусната JavaScript поддръжка, за да го видите.).

The rates of VAT vary according to the type of product or service on the basis of the legislation. The following rates are applicable:

  • the zero rate (0%) food, medicines, etc.
  • the reduced rate (5%) books, newspapers, water supply, etc.
  • the reduced rate (9%) catering services, taxi fares, rural and tourist buses
  • the standard rate (19%).

The delivery of a house, apartment or business premise, etc. for which planning permission was submitted after 1/5/20

COST OF LIVING

You can find comparative information for all the EU countries on the “Europe in figures” website of the EU. That will enable you to compare the situation in your own country with the situation in Cyprus.

Generally speaking, the cost of living in Cyprus is relatively high, when salaries and prices are taken into account. The large increase in fuel prices in recent years has led to a chain of increases in the prices of all products and services.

You can get an idea of prices from the prices charged in restaurants. The average restaurant charge is from €14 to €25 per person, inclusive of the drink.

Information about rents and the purchase prices of residences can be found in the “Finding accommodation” section of the relevant website.

EDUCATION SYSTEM

Pre-school education is provided by Greek-language state schools and by Greek-language and foreign-language private schools. It is provided for children aged between three years and five years and eight months. Attendance is compulsory for children aged between four years and eight months and five years and eight months. Attendance at a private nursery school costs from €1 500 to €3 500 per child per month; the cost at the state schools is lower. There are also state and private child care centres for children up to three years of age.

Primary education is provided free of charge at state schools for children aged between five years and eight months and eleven years and eight months. Age is the only criterion for the admission of children to primary education. From the 2006-2007 school year proof of pre-school attendance (from four years and eight months to five years and eight months) is a condition for enrolment in primary schools. The school year is divided into three terms of three months, with attendance on five days of the week. Primary education is also provided by English-language, French-language and Russian-language private schools.

Lower secondary education is provided free of charge for children aged between eleven years and eight months and fifteen years of age. Children are admitted to lower secondary education on the criterion of age and subject to possession of a primary school leaving certificate. The school year is divided into three terms of three months, with attendance on five days of the week. Lower secondary education is also provided by English-language and French-language private schools.

There are also 188 private nurseries, 26 private primary and 31 private secondary schools (Greek-language, English-Language, French-language and Russian-language) which operate with Ministry of Education and Culture approval. The cost of attendance is between €4 500 and €6 500 per year.

Upper secondary education is provided free of charge for children aged between 15 and 18 years. At this level, too, the school year is divided into three terms of three months, with five-day attendance. Pupils who wish to be trained in a technical occupation can attend a technical school whose diplomas are equivalent to upper secondary education. There are also private English-language and French-language upper secondary schools.

Children who do not speak Greek are given special lessons in the language to make it easier for them to join state schools at which attendance is compulsory and free.

Cyprus has three state university institutions: the University of Cyprus, the Technology University and the Open University and three private universities, the University of Nicosia, the European University of Cyprus and the Frederick University.  There is also a large number of private tertiary-level colleges. The Ministry of Education and Culture has approved twenty-five private tertiary schools and evaluates and certifies the academic titles of those schools every two years.

Specific information about the above matters can be obtained from the Ministry of Education and Culture by calling +357 22 800 600 and asking to be connected to the Ministry department you need.

RECOGNITION OF DIPLOMAS AND QUALIFICATIONS

The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers

The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in the decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in different Member States. Only such a system will ensure that a lack of recognition of professional qualifications will become an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.

Main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU

As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to freely practice their profession in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements for access to certain professions in the host country.

For the purpose of overcoming these differences, the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. Within the terms of this system, a distinction is made between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.

Steps towards a transparency of qualifications in Europe

The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:
- An increased co-operation in vocational education and training, with the intention to combine all instruments for transparency of certificates and diplomas, in one single, user-friendly tool. This includes, for example, the European CV or Europass Trainings.
- The development of concrete actions in the field of recognition and quality in vocational education and training.

Going beyond the differences in education and training systems throughout the EU

Education and training systems in the EU Member States still show substantial differences. The last enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.

In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has put forward a series of instruments, aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.

  1. The European Qualifications Framework

The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee a smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.

  1. The National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs)

A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.

  1. The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.

  1. Europass

Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It is composed of five standardised documents

  • a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
  • a language passport,
  • certificate supplements,
  • diploma supplements, and
  • a Europass-Mobility document.

The Europass system makes skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe. In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national Europass centres have been established as the primary contact points for people seeking for information about the Europass system.

USEFUL LINKS

www.mlsi.gov.cy - Ministry of Labour and Social Security

www.pescps.dl.mlsi.gov.cy National Database with Job Vacancies

www.mfa.gov.cy - Ministry of Foreign Affairs

www.moec.gov.cy - Ministry of Education

www.moh.gov.cy - Ministry of Health

www.cytayellowpages.com.cy - Yellow Pages - Companies

www.cyprusnet.com - General Information about Cyprus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL INFORMATION

Area -385,207 km2

Population – 5,356,789

Official Language – Norwegian

REGISTRATION AND RESIDENCE PERMITS

In Norway, an official guide (online wizard) has been developed for job seekers and employers called Work in Norway. Work in Norway is an online wizard for those who wish to work in Norway and need advice and information on job hunting, working life and moving.

You can easily navigate to public portals that will give you useful information from this page. You will also find information that will help you during the early stages of your employment in Norway. You will also find practical information on moving to Norway on New in Norway.

LOOKING FOR A JOB

In Norway, an official guide (online wizard) has been developed for job seekers and employers called Work in Norway. Work in Norway is an online wizard for those who wish to work in Norway and need advice and information on job hunting, working life and moving.

You can easily navigate to public portals that will give you additional useful information from this page. You will also find information that will help you during the early stages of your employment in Norway.

This website also has its own section for Norwegian employers who wish to recruit foreign labour to Norway, as well as foreign companies seeking to offer their services in Norway.

Work in Norway is a collaboration between the Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV), the Tax Department, the Directorate of Immigration (UDI), the Labour Inspection Authority and the Police. Whether you wish to do business in Norway or seek employment, Work in Norway is the place to start. Work in Norway will be referenced throughout our Live and Stay presentation.

INCOME AND TAXATION

In Norway, an official guide (online wizard) has been developed for job seekers and employers called Work in Norway. Work in Norway is an online wizard for those who wish to work in Norway and need advice and information on job hunting, working life and moving.

You can easily navigate to public portals that will give you useful information from this page. You will also find information that will help you during the early stages of your employment in Norway.

The website also provides information for Norwegian employers who wish to recruit foreign labour to Norway, as well as foreign companies seeking to offer their services in Norway.

Work in Norway is a collaboration between the Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV), the Tax Department, the Directorate of Immigration (UDI), the Labour Inspection Authority and the Police. Whether you wish to do business in Norway or seek employment, Work in Norway is the place to start.

COST OF LIVING

In Norway, an official guide (online wizard) has been developed for job seekers and employers called Work in Norway. Work in Norway is an online wizard for those who wish to work in Norway and need advice and information on job hunting, working life and moving.

You can easily navigate to public portals that will give you useful information from this page. You will also find information that will help you during the early stages of your employment in Norway.

New in Norway will also provide you with useful information.

Text last edited on: 11/2019

EDUCATION SYSTEM

Public and quality-assured information on education programmes in Norway can be found at utdanning.no. General information on Norwegian education can be found on websites of the Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT).

RECOGNITION OF DIPLOMAS AND QUALIFICATIONS

The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers

The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in the decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in different Member States. Only such a system will ensure that a lack of recognition of professional qualifications will become an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.

Main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU

As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to freely practice their profession in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements for access to certain professions in the host country.

For the purpose of overcoming these differences, the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. Within the terms of this system, a distinction is made between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.

Steps towards a transparency of qualifications in Europe

The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:

  • An increased co-operation in vocational education and training, with the intention to combine all instruments for transparency of certificates and diplomas, in one single, user-friendly tool. This includes, for example, the European CV or Europass Trainings.
  • The development of concrete actions in the field of recognition and quality in vocational education and training.

Going beyond the differences in education and training systems throughout the EU

Education and training systems in the EU Member States still show substantial differences. The last enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.

In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has put forward a series of instruments, aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.

  1. The European Qualifications Framework

The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee a smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.

  1. The National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs)

A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.

  1. The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.

  1. Europass

Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It is composed of five standardised documents

  • a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
  • a language passport,
  • certificate supplements,
  • diploma supplements, and
  • a Europass-Mobility document.

The Europass system makes skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe. In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national Europass centres have been established as the primary contact points for people seeking for information about the Europass system.

USEFUL LINKS

www.nav.no - Information about Jobseeking and Social Security

www.skatteetaten.no - Norwegian Taxes Service

www.arbeidstilsynet.no - Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority

www.politi.no - Police in Norway

www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/hod/id421 - Ministry of Health and Care Services

www.udi.no - The Norwegian Directorate of Immigration

www.nyinorge.no - Portal for Living Conditions in Norway

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL INFORMATION

Area - 103 004,0 km2

Population – 360 390 (2019)

Official Language – Icelandic

REGISTRATION AND RESIDENCE PERMITS

You must fill in Form A-261 (Icelandic)/A-262 (English) at the National Register of Iceland each time you enter the country. An identification number is assigned on first arrival in the country. A contract of employment or an employer's confirmation on Form A-265 (Icelandic)/A-266 (English) must be attached.

EEA/EFTA citizens may stay in Iceland for 3-6 months without registering their legal domicile in Iceland, but must register and receive an assigned ID number on their first arrival. A legal entity in Iceland, for example an employer, an educational institution, company or a government agency must apply for the ID number for the person in question on the form A-263 (Icelandic)/A-264 (English).

EEA/EFTA citizens who intend to stay longer than 3-6 months in Iceland must register a legal domicile in Iceland within 7 days of arrival in the country or when they meet the requirements for a registration of legal residence. The main requirement for a registration of legal residence is to provide proof of minimum resources. Most do so by submitting a contract of employment.

Staying longer than 3-6 months without registering in the National Register is illegal and affects people's rights. Anyone who stays or intends to stay in Iceland for 3-6 months or more must be legally domiciled in Iceland. The right to public services and assistance is usually subject to the person having a registered domicile and it is advisable to register your domicile first if you intend to reside in Iceland.

LOOKING FOR A JOB

There are a number of ways to go about job searching, but it is a good idea to start looking for a job before you move to Iceland. The EURES portal contains all the jobs advertised at the Directorate of Labour in Iceland; EURES jobs are specifically marked by the European flag. On the portal, you may also find detailed information on the living and working conditions in Iceland as well as on the current situation on the country's labour market.

You can also contact a EURES Adviser by sending us an email at Този имейл адрес е защитен от спам ботове. Трябва да имате пусната JavaScript поддръжка, за да го видите..

Employment agencies [ráðningarþjónustur]: You may register free of charge with one or more private employment agencies. You can find employment agencies and homepages where you can find jobs in Iceland here: https://vinnumalastofnun.is/en/job-search/other-recruitment-agencies

Read the [classified] advertisements in the local newspapers: The two largest newspapers in Iceland are Morgunblaðið (www.mbl.is) and Fréttablaðið (www.visir.is). A special employment section (Atvinna) comes out on Saturdays in Morgunblaðið and Fréttablaðið, but there are often job advertisements on other days. Note that most job advertisements are in Icelandic.

Speculative applications: If you know the industry in which you want to work, you may want to send the relevant companies an application with a CV, call them directly or visit them and ask if there are any positions available. EURES can also help you to find suitable companies.

Contacts: Tell everyone you know in Iceland that you are looking for employment. Word-of-mouth via family and friends often gives good results.

Social media: On Facebook you will find circles/groups where you can apply for access to advertised jobs. Use the words 'starf, störf, vinna, atvinna' [job, jobs, employment, work] to find those groups.

INCOME AND TAXATION

Median of total wages of full-time employees per month in 2017:

Managers

ISK 979 000

Experts

ISK 678 000

Technicians and other qualified workers

ISK 631 000

Office workers

ISK 510 000

Workers in services and sales

ISK 479 000

Tradesmen and qualified labourers

ISK 682 000

Machine operators

ISK 586 000

Unskilled labourers

ISK 467 000

Industrial tradesmen

ISK 733 000

Labourers

ISK 521 000

There are two levels of value added tax, 24% and 11%. The general level is 24%, and applies to all products and services that are not specifically defined by law to be at the 11% level, or that are exempt from VAT. At the 11% level, for example, are food sales, excluding alcohol, accommodation services, books and magazines, hot water, electricity and oil for central heating, CDs, condoms, non-disposable nappies and radio and television usage charges. Certain services are exempt from VAT, for example, health services, services of schools and educational institutions, social services, public transport and hospital transport and artistic activities.

The employer is obliged to deduct local taxes from wages and other payments to employees. The tax deduction consists of local authority tax and income tax payable to the state.

The deductible tax percentage is 36.94% of a (monthly) income up to ISK 927 087 and 46.24% from an income above ISK 927 087. Personal tax credit is ISK 56 447 per month for the year 2019.

Typical monthly deduction from a salary of ISK 583 000 (median wage in Iceland in 2016).

Total wages:

ISK 583 000

Deduction from wages:

 

Pension-fund contribution (4%):

ISK 23 320

Deductible tax percentage level 1 (36.94%):

ISK 206 746

Deductible tax paid (deductible tax - personal tax credit):

ISK 150 269

Union dues (0.7%):

ISK 4 081

Total deduction:

ISK 177 670

   

Paid salary:

ISK 405 330

Other general taxes on individuals

Capital income tax i.e. interest income, dividend, sales profit and rental income is 20%.

A radio broadcasting fee is charged to all persons aged between 16 and 70 with income tax over income limits. The radio broadcasting fee is ISK 17 500 for the year 2019.

Car taxation is calculated on the basis of the CO2 emissions and the weight of the vehicle.

An oil surcharge applies to usable fuel on vehicles. The amount payable is ISK 62.85 per litre of fuel plus 24% value added tax.

A levy for the elderly project fund is applied to all persons aged between 16 and 70 with income tax over income limits. The levy is ISK 10 464.

Couples and partners do not receive a special tax credit, but they can use their spouse's personal allowance if it is not fully utilised.

COST OF LIVING

The cost of living is high in Iceland. According to information from Eurostat, Iceland is ranked the 5th highest of 38 countries in Europe, when the living costs of households were compared in 2015. The price of food is high and the price of clothing, electrical appliances and transportation is the highest in the world. However, the price of telecommunications services is just slightly above average and the price of electricity is well below average.

In 2011, the Ministry of Welfare issued the Consumer Criteria for households in Iceland, which has been updated regularly. The criteria show the typical benchmarks that reflect household spending and, on the other hand, basic criteria that give an indication of possible minimum expenditures. The website of the ministry has a calculator for consumption criteria based on family size, residence and other factors, at https://www.velferdarraduneyti.is/neysluvidmid/.

Last updated: July 2019

EDUCATION SYSTEM

The education system is divided into four parts, pre-school, compulsory school, upper secondary school and university.

Attending pre-school is not mandatory. Most pre-schools are run by local authorities, but there are also privately operated pre-schools. Parents apply for a pre-school stay for their child in their municipality or the relevant pre-school. It varies from municipality to municipality when children can enter pre-school, but it is usually between the ages of one and two.

All children aged 6-16 years are required to attend compulsory school in Iceland. Parents or guardians are responsible for registering children at school, and most primary schools are run by local authorities.

Upper secondary education follows compulsory school, but attendance is not mandatory. The duration of the secondary education varies, depending on whether it is an academic programme or vocational education, and a matriculation degree usually takes 3 years. Upper secondary schools are referred to as comprehensive high schools (fjölbrautarskólar), colleges (menntaskólar), trade schools (iðnskólar) or vocational colleges (verkmenntaskólar). Students complete studies either with a matriculation degree in academic subjects, a vocational degree from a trade school or a special degree programme. Some upper secondary schools offer evening classes and distance learning for an older group of students.

Those who have completed a matriculation or equivalent degree can attend university. Some subjects require a special entrance exam. Some universities offer a special graduate programme for those who have not completed a matriculation degree and distance education in certain subjects. University education is completed with an appropriate degree according to level and length of study, i.e. a diploma, a bachelor, masters or doctorate degree. In Iceland, there are seven universities, five of which are operated by the government and two are private universities.

RECOGNITION OF DIPLOMAS AND QUALIFICATIONS

The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers

The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in the decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in different Member States. Only such a system will ensure that a lack of recognition of professional qualifications will become an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.

Main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU

As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to freely practice their profession in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements for access to certain professions in the host country.

For the purpose of overcoming these differences, the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. Within the terms of this system, a distinction is made between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.

Steps towards a transparency of qualifications in Europe

The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:

  • An increased co-operation in vocational education and training, with the intention to combine all instruments for transparency of certificates and diplomas, in one single, user-friendly tool. This includes, for example, the European CV or Europass Trainings.
  • The development of concrete actions in the field of recognition and quality in vocational education and training.

Going beyond the differences in education and training systems throughout the EU

Education and training systems in the EU Member States still show substantial differences. The last enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.

In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has put forward a series of instruments, aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.

  1. The European Qualifications Framework

The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee a smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.

  1. The National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs)

A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.

  1. The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.

  1. Europass

Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It is composed of five standardised documents

  • a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
  • a language passport,
  • certificate supplements,
  • diploma supplements, and
  • a Europass-Mobility document.

The Europass system makes skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe. In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national Europass centres have been established as the primary contact points for people seeking for information about the Europass system.

USEFUL LINKS

www.vinnumalastofnun.is - Labour Office

www.utl.is - Immigration Services

www.government.is - Government of Iceland

www.tr.is - Social Security Institute

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

pic eures documents

GENERAL INFORMATION

Area - 238,397 km2

Population – 19,401,658 (2019)

Official Language – Romanian 

REGISTRATION AND RESIDENCE PERMITS

EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizens may enter Romania after presenting a national identity document or a valid passport.

Family members who are not EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizens may enter Romania using a valid passport bearing an entry visa granted by a Romanian diplomatic mission or consular office, on request, on the basis of a fast-track procedure (48 hours) with the prior approval of the National Visa Centre of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Any family member who is not an EU citizen is exempted from the obligation to obtain the visa if he/she meets two conditions cumulatively: if he/she accompanies or joins a EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizen exercising his/her right of residence within the territory of Romania and if he/she holds a valid document proving his/her residence in another Member State as a family member of the EU/EEA citizen he/she accompanies or joins in Romania.

EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizens entering Romania have a right of residence for a period of 3 months following the date of entry, without any additional conditions. By way of exception, EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizens entering Romania and seeking a job have a right of residence for a period of up to 6 months following the date of entry, without any additional conditions. Family members of EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizens, who accompany or join these citizens later, have the same right of residence in Romania, irrespective of citizenship.

EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizens wishing to stay in Romania for more than 3 months must obtain a registration certificate from the local branches of the Inspectorate-General for Immigration. They are entitled to residence for more than three months if they are in one of the following situations: they have the status of a worker; they have medical insurance and the necessary means of support for themselves and for the members of their families at least at the level of the guaranteed minimum income applicable in Romania; they are enrolled with an institution in Romania which provides education or ongoing professional training and they have the means required in order to support themselves or the members of their family; they are members of the family of a European citizen meeting one of the conditions above or of a Romanian citizen having his/her domicile in Romania.

Family members who are not EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizens have a right of residence for more than 3 months if they accompany or join the EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizen meeting one of the aforementioned conditions.

EU/EEA citizens or their family members, who have uninterrupted legal residence in Romania for a period of at least 5 years may apply for permanent residence and for a permanent residence card. People who do not have EU citizenship but have resided uninterruptedly in Romania for a period of at least 5 years as family members of a EU/EEA/Swiss Confederation citizen who is a resident or a permanent resident enjoy the same right. A residence card can be issued by the Inspectorate-General for Immigration on the basis of an application filed within the first 3 months after the date of arrival in Romania.

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LOOKING FOR A JOB

Jobseekers who are EU or EEA citizens can contact the National Employment Agency (ANOFM), which is Romania’s public employment office, through its local branches. They have free access to the Romanian labour market. Nationals of other Member States of the European Union are employed in the same conditions as Romanian nationals and have to complete all the employment formalities, from obtaining a medical certificate issued by an occupational physician and confirming that the future employee is fit for work to the notification, by the employer, of the individual employment contract to the Labour Inspection. It is recommended that sufficient time is allowed between the signing of the individual employment contract and the start of work at the Romanian employer, so as to enable the EU national to complete all the required formalities.

Interested persons may contact and register with one of the 41 employment agencies in the counties or in Bucharest, or with one of the 70 local employment agencies spread throughout the country.

County agencies provide information, counselling and mediation services for jobseekers or unemployed persons, as well as information and counselling services for potential employers. The services offered are free of charge.

A database is available, both at county and at the national level, containing all the jobs offered by Romanian employers. Employers are required by law to declare all their vacancies to the National Employment Agency. You can view job vacancies under the ‘Persoane fizice/Locuri de muncă’ (Individuals/Jobs) section on the ANOFM’s website. Details of the vacancies are displayed in Romanian.

EU/EEA citizens who are unemployed persons receiving unemployment benefits in another EU/EEA state and who are seeking a job in Romania may export their unemployment benefits (for a maximum period of 3 to 6 months), provided that they register as jobseekers with the county employment agency covering the area where they have established their residence in Romania.

You may also contact one of the 45 EURES advisers in the county employment agencies. The contact details of these EURES advisers can be found on the website of the National Employment Agency, under the EURES Romania section.

Providers of specialised services from Romania and from other EU/EEA States operate in the Romanian market in order to stimulate employment. ON ANOFM Website you can find the National Register of private providers of employment services accredited for the domestic market.

Another way of finding a job in Romania consists in accessing various web portals which are a major source of vacancy notices. Jobs published directly by employers can be found here and CVs may be uploaded in the database, so that they could be seen by employers looking for staff.

The national, regional and local newspapers also contain many classified job advertisements (both job offers and requests).

If the vacancies listed in the different publications or on the internet are not satisfactory for you or if you wish to work for a company that has not advertised the position you are interested in, you can still apply by sending an unsolicited application (CV accompanied, if you wish so, by a photograph and a cover letter) to the human resources department of the company concerned.

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INCOME AND TAXATION

In March 2019, the national nominal average gross wage was RON 5 050 (approx. EUR 1 050), and the nominal average net wage was RON 3 075 (approx. EUR 640).

There are differences in income between the western and eastern regions. Higher incomes are available in the more developed regions (Bucharest-Ilfov, North-West, West), with Bucharest offering the highest incomes in the country.

As of 1 January 2018 there are only three compulsory social contributions, as follows:

  • The social contribution (pension) — the rates of social contributions are:
  • 25% of the gross monthly income for normal working conditions, due by the employee, of which 3.75% is assigned to the private pension fund;
  • 4% of the gross monthly income for abnormal working conditions, due by the employer in addition to the 25% rate;
  • 8% of the gross monthly income for special employment conditions, due by the employer in addition to the 25% rate;
  • Social health contribution — 10% of the employee’s gross monthly income, due by the employee;
  •  Work insurance contributions — 2.25% of the gross monthly income, due by the employer, which includes the unemployment insurance contributions, the contribution for sick leave, the contribution for occupational risks and the contribution to salary claims.

The contribution to the state budget is paid via the income tax. The payroll tax for any gross salary higher than the guaranteed minimum wage is 10%. Social contributions and payroll tax are calculated, retained and paid by the employer.

Besides the income tax, pensions over a certain threshold are also taxed. Property tax is also payable on property, motor vehicles, land, the amount of which is determined by the municipalities, etc.

Every year, the Government establishes the minimum gross base salary guaranteed at country level (RON 2 080 as of 1 January 2019 and RON 2 350 for employees with higher education level and one year of seniority in the field of their education). The Government also established a minimum gross monthly base salary applicable in 2019 in the constructions sector, which amounts to RON 3 000 (approx. EUR 625). According to the National Institute of Statistics, in March 2019, the highest levels of average net salaries were recorded in the tobacco manufacturing sector (RON 7 336, approx. EUR 1 530), in the information technology sector (RON 7 491, approx. EUR 1 560), and the lowest levels in agriculture, forestry and fishing sectors (RON 2 301, approx. EUR 480) and in hotels and restaurants (RON 1 752, approx. EUR 370).

The standard VAT rate is 19%, as from 2017. There are also lower VAT rates (e.g. 9% for human and veterinary medicines, for water supply and sewage services, accommodations in hotel sector, food delivery and 5% for restaurant and catering services, books, textbooks, magazines and access to school and sports events, access to museums, memorial houses, fairs, exhibitions, mountain products, organic and traditional products authorised by the Ministry of Agriculture) as well as exemptions, according to the Fiscal Code.

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COST OF LIVING

Cost of living varies from region to region and according to the environment where citizens live (urban or rural).

According to the INS (National Institute of Statistics) press release concerning the revenues and expenses of households in Q4 2018, the structure of total consumption expenditure broken down by use indicates that most expenses (32.1%) relate to the purchase of agri-food products and non-alcoholic drinks. Housing and water, electricity and natural gas accounted for 16.5% of household consumption. Other household expenses were for leisure and culture (7.9%), transportation (7.4%), healthcare (5%), communications (4.8%), clothing and footwear (8.7%), home furnishings and maintenance (5.7%), etc.

The approximate prices for certain basic products are as follows: EUR 2.2 for a 250 g packet of butter, EUR 1 for 1 litre of milk, EUR 1.4 for 1 kg of rice, EUR 0.8 for 1 kg of potatoes, EUR 0.4 for a 0.5 kg loaf of white bread, EUR 1.1 for 1 litre of cooking oil, EUR 0.7 for a 0.5 l bottle of beer, EUR 1.3 for a cup of espresso coffee, EUR 9 for a full lunch menu for one person in a restaurant, EUR 1.3 for 1 litre of 95 RON petrol.

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EDUCATION SYSTEM

The national pre-university system is structured on 4 levels:

  1. pre-school, which includes a first year, a second year and a third year, in preparation for school;
  2. primary, which includes the preparatory year and grades 1 to 4;
  3. secondary, which includes:
  • lower secondary school, which includes grades 5 to 8 and the lower grades of high school or arts and crafts school (grades 9 to 10);
  • upper secondary school, which includes the upper high-school grades (10 to 12/13);
  1. post high school. It is organised for professional qualifications established by the Ministry of National Education according to the National Register of Qualifications. In the post high school education may be enrolled high school graduates with or without baccalaureate diploma, the access being provided according to the general criteria established by the Ministry of National Education. Post high school education is provided in post high school units and in master workman schools. Both types of schools represent specialised training paths, with a duration of 1-3 years depending on qualification complexity.

On completion of secondary school, the highest level of qualification is the baccalaureate examination. The baccalaureate examination is a prerequisite for access to higher education.

Higher education is structured on three levels:

  • Bachelor’s courses;
  • Master’s courses;
  • Doctoral studies.

Compulsory general education consists of 11 grades and includes primary school, lower secondary school and the first two grades of upper secondary school. The state educational system is free of charge. Fees are charged, however, for some activities, as provided for by law. The Romanian language is used at all levels. Education may also take place in minority or international languages. The state educational institutions are predominant compared to the private ones.

The educational system is organised as full-time and part-time. Full-time education is compulsory. Home-based learning may be arranged for children with special educational needs or who cannot be moved.

RECOGNITION OF DIPLOMAS AND QUALIFICATIONS

The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers

The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in any decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in the different Member States. Only such a system will prevent a lack of recognition of professional qualifications becoming an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.

The main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU

As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to practise his or her profession freely in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements governing access to certain professions in host countries.

To overcome these differences the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. This system distinguishes between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.

Steps towards the transparency of qualifications in Europe

The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:

increased co-operation in vocational education and training, with the intention of combining all instruments for the transparency of certificates and diplomas into one single, user-friendly tool. This includes, for example, the European CV or the Europass Training.

The development of concrete actions in the field of recognition and quality in vocational education and training.

Going beyond differences in the education and training systems throughout the EU

Education and training systems in the EU Member States still reveal substantial differences. The latest enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.

In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has enacted a series of instruments aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.

  1. The European Qualifications Framework

The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee the smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.

  1. The National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs)

 A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role in the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.

  • The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

 The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.

  • Europass

 Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It comprises five standardised documents:

  • a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
  • a language passport,
  • certificate supplements,
  • diploma supplements, and
  • a Europass Mobility document.

The Europass system makes skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe. In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national Europass centres have been established as the primary contact points for people seeking for information about the Europass system.

Recognition of diplomas and qualifications in Romania

The recognition of diplomas and qualifications for the recognised professions in Romania applies to any citizen of an EU Member State or of the EEA who wants to work in Romania independently or as an employee. The institution responsible for the recognition of diplomas is the National Centre for Recognition and Equivalence of Diplomas in the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sport. The Centre also recognises the diplomas and study documents of foreign citizens requesting  work permits.

A diploma is a document or set of documents certifying the level of training, which:

§ was issued by a competent authority in an EU or EEA state;

§ certifies that the holder has completed a cycle of higher education of at least 3 years or of an equivalent duration in a longer term form of education or in a university, a higher education institution or another institution at a similar level, following training courses alongside the higher education cycle, where the state of origin imposes such conditions;

§ certifies the fact that the holder has the professional qualification required for a regulated profession or for occupying a job in the state of origin, only if the training certified by the documents mentioned in this paragraph was mainly obtained in the EU or EEA or where the holder of such documents has acquired professional experience of at least 3 years, certified in a Member State which recognises a diploma issued by a non-EU state.

Likewise, any document issued by a competent authority in a Member State is considered to be a diploma if it refers to training acquired in the EU or EEA. Diplomas should also be recognised by the competent authority of a Member State with an equivalent level to the above-mentioned ones, only if that State stipulates the same access rights to a profession regulated in the Member State of origin.

USEFUL LINKS

http://www.anoform.ro - National Employment Agency

http://igi.mai.gov.ro - Romanian Immigration Office

http://www.politiaromana.ro - Police

http://www.mai.gov.ro - Ministry of Interior

http://mmuncii.rom - Ministry of Labour

http://www.mfinante.ro - Ministry of Finance

http://www.cnas.ro - National Health Insurance Service

http://www.edu.ro - Ministry of Education

http://www.unibuc.ro - University of Bucharest

http://ase.edu.ro - Acedemy of Economic Sciences

http://www.upt.ro - Politechnic University Timisoara

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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